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Chemical Compound Review

Pyridoxin     4,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2- methyl-pyridin-3-ol

Synonyms: Adermine, Alestrol, Gravidox, Hexermin, Pyridoxol, ...
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Disease relevance of pyridoxine


Psychiatry related information on pyridoxine


High impact information on pyridoxine


Chemical compound and disease context of pyridoxine


Biological context of pyridoxine


Anatomical context of pyridoxine

  • This study examines the effect of pyridoxine supplementation on the plasma content of B6 vitamers and pyridoxic acid in man, and the metabolic conversion and release of B6 compounds in isolated rat hepatocytes [23].
  • A previously unaffected 77-yr-old male and an 81-yr-old female were each found to have developed severe hypochromic, microcytic anemia with ringed sideroblasts in the bone marrow, which responded dramatically to pyridoxine with normalization of hemoglobin values [18].
  • delta-Aminolevulinic acid synthetase in erythroblasts of patients with pyridoxine-responsive anemia. Hypercatabolism caused by the increased susceptibility to the controlling protease [24].
  • GABA synthesis by skin fibroblasts from an infant with pyridoxine-dependent seizures, and from five controls, was measured [25].
  • Combined riboflavin and pyridoxine treatment increased (P less than 0.001) the specific activities of erythrocyte glutathione reductase and erythrocyte glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase to normal levels with total disappearance of the CTS [26].

Associations of pyridoxine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of pyridoxine


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of pyridoxine

  • The effect of pyridoxine depletion on the expression of serum protein species in control and Morris hepatoma No. 7777-bearing rats was studied with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) [34].
  • Western blot analyses of mitochondrial proteins, using antibody to human OAT, indicated clearly detectable OAT protein in pyridoxine-responsive patients and in two of five nonresponders, but low or undetectable levels in the other three patients [35].
  • By PCR amplification and sequencing of exon 8 from genomic DNA we have now detected the I278T mutation in 7 of 11 patients with in vivo pyridoxine responsiveness and in 0 of 27 pyridoxine-nonresponsive patients [22].
  • The proband with the R452C mutation was symptom-free on occasional phlebotomy and daily pyridoxine [36].
  • Modes of therapy that could be used together because they act through different mechanisms are intravesical chemotherapy, radioactive needle implants, carcinogen modifiers such as pyridoxine, chemoprotective agents such as retinoic acid, and immune stimulants such as BCG [37].


  1. Homocystinuria--the effects of betaine in the treatment of patients not responsive to pyridoxine. Wilcken, D.E., Wilcken, B., Dudman, N.P., Tyrrell, P.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. X-linked pyridoxine-responsive sideroblastic anemia due to a Thr388-to-Ser substitution in erythroid 5-aminolevulinate synthase. Cox, T.C., Bottomley, S.S., Wiley, J.S., Bawden, M.J., Matthews, C.S., May, B.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Response to a physiologic dose of pyridoxine in type I primary hyperoxaluria. Yendt, E.R., Cohanim, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Pyridoxine treatment of type 1 hyperoxaluria. Alinei, P., Guignard, J.P., Jaeger, P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Sensory neuropathy from pyridoxine abuse. A new megavitamin syndrome. Schaumburg, H., Kaplan, J., Windebank, A., Vick, N., Rasmus, S., Pleasure, D., Brown, M.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Reversal of prolonged isoniazid-induced coma by pyridoxine. Brent, J., Vo, N., Kulig, K., Rumack, B.H. Arch. Intern. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Longitudinal MRI findings in pyridoxine-dependent seizures. Gospe, S.M., Hecht, S.T. Neurology (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Dose response, coasting, and differential fiber vulnerability in human toxic neuropathy: a prospective study of pyridoxine neurotoxicity. Berger, A.R., Schaumburg, H.H., Schroeder, C., Apfel, S., Reynolds, R. Neurology (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Thiamine, riboflavin and pyridoxine deficiency in psychiatric in-patients. Carney, M.W., Ravindran, A., Rinsler, M.G., Williams, D.G. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. Thiamine and pyridoxine lack newly-admitted psychiatric patients. Carney, M.W., Williams, D.G., Sheffield, B.F. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. Decreased rate of coronary restenosis after lowering of plasma homocysteine levels. Schnyder, G., Roffi, M., Pin, R., Flammer, Y., Lange, H., Eberli, F.R., Meier, B., Turi, Z.G., Hess, O.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. X-linked, pyridoxine-responsive sideroblastic anemia. Harris, J.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Results of long-term treatment with orthophosphate and pyridoxine in patients with primary hyperoxaluria. Milliner, D.S., Eickholt, J.T., Bergstralh, E.J., Wilson, D.M., Smith, L.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Affinity of cystathionine beta-synthase for pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in cultured cells. A mechanism for pyridoxine-responsive homocystinuria. Lipson, M.H., Kraus, J., Rosenberg, L.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. Pancreatic cancer risk and nutrition-related methyl-group availability indicators in male smokers. Stolzenberg-Solomon, R.Z., Albanes, D., Nieto, F.J., Hartman, T.J., Tangrea, J.A., Rautalahti, M., Sehlub, J., Virtamo, J., Taylor, P.R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Sinemet and the treatment of Parkinsonism. Boshes, B. Ann. Intern. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  17. Hydrazine toxicity, pyridoxine therapy, and peripheral neuropathy. Harati, Y., Niakan, E. Ann. Intern. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Late-onset X-linked sideroblastic anemia. Missense mutations in the erythroid delta-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS2) gene in two pyridoxine-responsive patients initially diagnosed with acquired refractory anemia and ringed sideroblasts. Cotter, P.D., May, A., Fitzsimons, E.J., Houston, T., Woodcock, B.E., al-Sabah, A.I., Wong, L., Bishop, D.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. In vivo absorption and phosphorylation of pyridoxine . HCl in rat jejunum. Middleton, H.M. Gastroenterology (1979) [Pubmed]
  20. Influence of oral contraceptives, pyridoxine (vitamin B6), and tryptophan on carbohydrate metabolism. Adams, P.W., Wynn, V., Folkard, J., Seed, M. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  21. Analysis of the Arabidopsis rsr4-1/pdx1-3 mutant reveals the critical function of the PDX1 protein family in metabolism, development, and vitamin B6 biosynthesis. Wagner, S., Bernhardt, A., Leuendorf, J.E., Drewke, C., Lytovchenko, A., Mujahed, N., Gurgui, C., Frommer, W.B., Leistner, E., Fernie, A.R., Hellmann, H. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. A missense mutation (I278T) in the cystathionine beta-synthase gene prevalent in pyridoxine-responsive homocystinuria and associated with mild clinical phenotype. Shih, V.E., Fringer, J.M., Mandell, R., Kraus, J.P., Berry, G.T., Heidenreich, R.A., Korson, M.S., Levy, H.L., Ramesh, V. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Plasma content of B6 vitamers and its relationship to hepatic vitamin B6 metabolism. Lumeng, L., Lui, A., Li, T.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1980) [Pubmed]
  24. delta-Aminolevulinic acid synthetase in erythroblasts of patients with pyridoxine-responsive anemia. Hypercatabolism caused by the increased susceptibility to the controlling protease. Aoki, Y., Muranaka, S., Nakabayashi, K., Ueda, Y. J. Clin. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  25. Reduced GABA synthesis in pyridoxine-dependent seizures. Gospe, S.M., Olin, K.L., Keen, C.L. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Enzymology of the response of the carpal tunnel syndrome to riboflavin and to combined riboflavin and pyridoxine. Folkers, K., Wolaniuk, A., Vadhanavikit, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. Treatment of hydrazine-induced coma with pyridoxine. Kirklin, J.K., Watson, M., Bondoc, C.C., Burke, J.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  28. Suppression of hematopoietic-progenitor-cell proliferation by ethanol and acetaldehyde. Meagher, R.C., Sieber, F., Spivak, J.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  29. Elevation of serum cystathionine levels in patients with cobalamin and folate deficiency. Stabler, S.P., Lindenbaum, J., Savage, D.G., Allen, R.H. Blood (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Glutamate decarboxylase is not genetically linked to pyridoxine-dependent seizures. Battaglioli, G., Rosen, D.R., Gospe, S.M., Martin, D.L. Neurology (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. SOS4, a pyridoxal kinase gene, is required for root hair development in Arabidopsis. Shi, H., Zhu, J.K. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Analysis of the pdx-1 (snz-1/sno-1) region of the Neurospora crassa genome: correlation of pyridoxine-requiring phenotypes with mutations in two structural genes. Bean, L.E., Dvorachek, W.H., Braun, E.L., Errett, A., Saenz, G.S., Giles, M.D., Werner-Washburne, M., Nelson, M.A., Natvig, D.O. Genetics (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Metabolic relationships between pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and serine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli K-12. Lam, H.M., Winkler, M.E. J. Bacteriol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  34. Effects of pyridoxine on serum protein expression in hepatoma-bearing rats. Tryfiates, G.P. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1981) [Pubmed]
  35. Gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina: characterization of mutant ornithine aminotransferase and mechanism of response to vitamin B6. Kennaway, N.G., Stankova, L., Wirtz, M.K., Weleber, R.G. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  36. Four new mutations in the erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS2) gene causing X-linked sideroblastic anemia: increased pyridoxine responsiveness after removal of iron overload by phlebotomy and coinheritance of hereditary hemochromatosis. Cotter, P.D., May, A., Li, L., Al-Sabah, A.I., Fitzsimons, E.J., Cazzola, M., Bishop, D.F. Blood (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. The biology and treatment of superficial bladder cancer. Torti, F.M., Lum, B.L. J. Clin. Oncol. (1984) [Pubmed]
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