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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Rats


Psychiatry related information on Rats

  • Midline and lateral field sound localization in the albino rat (Rattus norvegicus) [6].
  • This study investigated whether the circadian oscillation in plasma melatonin is involved in the modulation of plasma beta-END immunoreactivity (beta-END-ir), and whether fluctuations in pain threshold measured using the hotplate test are contingent upon the fluctuation of these two hormones in Rattus Norvegicus [7].
  • Maternal responsiveness to infant Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) ultrasonic vocalizations during the maternal behavior cycle and after steroid and experiential induction regimens [8].
  • Amnesia after diazepam infusion into basolateral but not central amygdala of Rattus norvegicus [9].
  • Food deprivation in the laboratory rat decreases plasma leptin and insulin, elevates glucocorticoid concentration, and increases the activity of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system and feeding drive [10].

High impact information on Rats


Chemical compound and disease context of Rats


Biological context of Rats


Anatomical context of Rats


Associations of Rats with chemical compounds

  • Spontaneous tumor incidence in female brown Norway rats after lifelong diets high and low in linoleic acid [31].
  • The results of this investigation are consistent with electrophysiologic and behavioral studies in laboratory rats and suggest that desipramine- and amitriptyline-induced alterations in 5-HT function may be related to their antidepressant mechanism of action [32].
  • A 40-min exposure of laboratory rats to 10 mg/ml insulin/EtOH aerosols resulted in a 2-fold drop in the blood glucose level and a marked rise in the serum insulin level [33].
  • The other two groups were fed ground laboratory rat chow containing 400 mg of lovastatin per kg of diet ad libitum [34].
  • Laboratory studies have demonstrated that tamoxifen is hepatocarcinogenic in laboratory rats, but not in other species [35].

Gene context of Rats

  • (i) In normoxia, both Spalax and Rattus kidneys produce small amounts of Epo [36].
  • In this study, we present the genomic organization of the two C4 gene-containing modules and the expression of the two C4 genes in the rat (Rattus norvegicus) [37].
  • In laboratory rats we previously reported a FMO2 gene encoding a truncated FMO2 (432-AA residues) [38].
  • Previous studies have suggested that oxytocin (OT) may be anxiolytic in female laboratory rats and mice [39].
  • Chromosomal localization of ceruloplasmin and transferrin genes in laboratory rats, mice and in man by hybridization with specific DNA probes [40].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Rats


  1. Antimyeloperoxidase-associated proliferative glomerulonephritis: an animal model. Brouwer, E., Huitema, M.G., Klok, P.A., de Weerd, H., Tervaert, J.W., Weening, J.J., Kallenberg, C.G. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. 5-oxo-ETE induces pulmonary eosinophilia in an integrin-dependent manner in Brown Norway rats. Stamatiou, P., Hamid, Q., Taha, R., Yu, W., Issekutz, T.B., Rokach, J., Khanapure, S.P., Powell, W.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Contrasting effects of the intermittent and continuous administration of heparin in experimental restenosis. Edelman, E.R., Karnovsky, M.J. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Inhibition of 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5]pyridine-induced lymphoma formation by oltipraz. Rao, C.V., Rivenson, A., Zang, E., Steele, V., Kelloff, G., Reddy, B.S. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Relocalization of apoptosis-inducing factor in photoreceptor apoptosis induced by retinal detachment in vivo. Hisatomi, T., Sakamoto, T., Murata, T., Yamanaka, I., Oshima, Y., Hata, Y., Ishibashi, T., Inomata, H., Susin, S.A., Kroemer, G. Am. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Midline and lateral field sound localization in the albino rat (Rattus norvegicus). Kavanagh, G.L., Kelly, J.B. Behav. Neurosci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Does melatonin modulate beta-endorphin, corticosterone, and pain threshold? Barrett, T., Kent, S., Voudouris, N. Life Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Maternal responsiveness to infant Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) ultrasonic vocalizations during the maternal behavior cycle and after steroid and experiential induction regimens. Farrell, W.J., Alberts, J.R. Journal of comparative psychology (Washington, D.C. : 1983) (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Amnesia after diazepam infusion into basolateral but not central amygdala of Rattus norvegicus. Silva, M.A., Tomaz, C. Neuropsychobiology (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Leptin (ob) mRNA and hypothalamic NPY in food-deprived/refed Syrian hamsters. Mercer, J.G., Beck, B., Burlet, A., Moar, K.M., Hoggard, N., Atkinson, T., Barrett, P. Physiol. Behav. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. A cannabinoid mechanism in relapse to cocaine seeking. De Vries, T.J., Shaham, Y., Homberg, J.R., Crombag, H., Schuurman, K., Dieben, J., Vanderschuren, L.J., Schoffelmeer, A.N. Nat. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Seasonal rhythm in plasma testosterone and luteinising hormone of the male laboratory rat. Mock, E.J., Kamel, F., Wright, W.W., Frankel, A.I. Nature (1975) [Pubmed]
  13. Fast and slow magnetic phenomena in focal epileptic seizures. Barth, D.S., Sutherling, W., Beatty, J. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Neuronal loss in hippocampus induced by prolonged ethanol consumption in rats. Walker, D.W., Barnes, D.E., Zornetzer, S.F., Hunter, B.E., Kubanis, P. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. Toxicity associated with long-term intravenous heroin and cocaine self-administration in the rat. Bozarth, M.A., Wise, R.A. JAMA (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Direct correlation between hyperoxaluria/oxalate stone disease and the absence of the gastrointestinal tract-dwelling bacterium Oxalobacter formigenes: possible prevention by gut recolonization or enzyme replacement therapy. Sidhu, H., Schmidt, M.E., Cornelius, J.G., Thamilselvan, S., Khan, S.R., Hesse, A., Peck, A.B. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Sex differences in Seoul virus infection are not related to adult sex steroid concentrations in Norway rats. Klein, S.L., Bird, B.H., Glass, G.E. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, inhibits the late airway response to antigen, airway eosinophilia, and IL-5-expressing cells in Brown Norway rats. Ihaku, D., Cameron, L., Suzuki, M., Molet, S., Martin, J., Hamid, Q. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Susceptibility to the induction of either autoimmunity or immunosuppression by mercuric chloride is related to the major histocompatibility complex class II haplotype. Aten, J., Veninga, A., De Heer, E., Rozing, J., Nieuwenhuis, P., Hoedemaeker, P.J., Weening, J.J. Eur. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Comparison of aminopeptidase activities in four strains of mutans group oral streptococci. Cowman, R.A., Baron, S.S. Infect. Immun. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Novel features of animal mtDNA evolution as shown by sequences of two rat cytochrome oxidase subunit II genes. Brown, G.G., Simpson, M.V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Concerted evolution of class I genes in the major histocompatibility complex of murine rodents. Rada, C., Lorenzi, R., Powis, S.J., van den Bogaerde, J., Parham, P., Howard, J.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae acyl-protein thioesterase 1, the enzyme responsible for G protein alpha subunit deacylation in vivo. Duncan, J.A., Gilman, A.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Thermotolerant guard cell protoplasts of tree tobacco do not require exogenous hormones to survive in culture and are blocked from reentering the cell cycle at the G1-to-S transition. Gushwa, N.N., Hayashi, D., Kemper, A., Abram, B., Taylor, J.E., Upton, J., Tay, C.F., Fiedler, S., Pullen, S., Miller, L.P., Tallman, G. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Isolation, characterization, and inhibition kinetics of enolase from Streptococcus rattus FA-1. Hüther, F.J., Psarros, N., Duschner, H. Infect. Immun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Basic fibroblast growth factor enhances the coupling of intimal hyperplasia and proliferation of vasa vasorum in injured rat arteries. Edelman, E.R., Nugent, M.A., Smith, L.T., Karnovsky, M.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Defective delivery of iron to the developing red cell of the Belgrade laboratory rat. Edwards, J.A., Sullivan, A.L., Hoke, J.E. Blood (1980) [Pubmed]
  28. Anemia of the Belgrade rat: evidence for defective membrane transport of iron. Bowen, B.J., Morgan, E.H. Blood (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. HgCl2-induced interleukin-4 gene expression in T cells involves a protein kinase C-dependent calcium influx through L-type calcium channels. Badou, A., Savignac, M., Moreau, M., Leclerc, C., Pasquier, R., Druet, P., Pelletier, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Cholera toxin increases IL-6 synthesis and decreases TNF-alpha production by rat peritoneal mast cells. Leal-Berumen, I., Snider, D.P., Barajas-Lopez, C., Marshall, J.S. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Spontaneous tumor incidence in female brown Norway rats after lifelong diets high and low in linoleic acid. Kort, W.J., Zondervan, P.E., Hulsman, L.O., Weijma, I.M., Hülsmann, W.C., Westbroek, D.L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. Serotonin function and mechanism of action of antidepressant treatment. Effects of amitriptyline and desipramine. Charney, D.S., Heninger, G.R., Sternberg, D.E. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1984) [Pubmed]
  33. Inhalation delivery of proteins from ethanol suspensions. Choi, W.S., Murthy, G.G., Edwards, D.A., Langer, R., Klibanov, A.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Lovastatin decreases coenzyme Q levels in rats. Willis, R.A., Folkers, K., Tucker, J.L., Ye, C.Q., Xia, L.J., Tamagawa, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  35. Does tamoxifen cause cancer in humans? Stearns, V., Gelmann, E.P. J. Clin. Oncol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Hypoxic stress tolerance of the blind subterranean mole rat: expression of erythropoietin and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha. Shams, I., Avivi, A., Nevo, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. The rat expresses two complement factor C4 proteins, but only one isotype is expressed in the liver. Roos, C., Dressel, R., Schmidt, B., Günther, E., Walter, L. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. Identification and characterization of the FMO2 gene in Rattus norvegicus: a good model to study metabolic and toxicological consequences of the FMO2 polymorphism. Hugonnard, M., Benoit, E., Longin-Sauvageon, C., Lattard, V. Pharmacogenetics (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Female oxytocin-deficient mice display enhanced anxiety-related behavior. Mantella, R.C., Vollmer, R.R., Li, X., Amico, J.A. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  40. Chromosomal localization of ceruloplasmin and transferrin genes in laboratory rats, mice and in man by hybridization with specific DNA probes. Baranov, V.S., Schwartzman, A.L., Gorbunova, V.N., Gaitskhoki, V.S., Rubtsov, N.B., Timchenko, N.A., Neifakh, S.A. Chromosoma (1987) [Pubmed]
  41. Converting enzyme inhibition in kinin-deficient brown Norway rats. Danckwardt, L., Shimizu, I., Bönner, G., Rettig, R., Unger, T. Hypertension (1990) [Pubmed]
  42. Development, maintenance and temporal pattern of self-administration maintained by ecstasy (MDMA) in rats. Schenk, S., Gittings, D., Johnstone, M., Daniela, E. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  43. In vivo efficacy in airway disease models of N-(3,5-dichloropyrid-4-yl)-[1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-5-hydroxy-indole-3-yl]-glyoxylic acid amide (AWD 12-281), a selective phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor for inhaled administration. Kuss, H., Hoefgen, N., Johanssen, S., Kronbach, T., Rundfeldt, C. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  44. Opposite effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on sensorimotor gating in rats versus healthy humans. Vollenweider, F.X., Remensberger, S., Hell, D., Geyer, M.A. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1999) [Pubmed]
  45. Effects of transforming growth factor-beta and formula feeding on systemic immune responses to dietary beta-lactoglobulin in allergy-prone rats. Penttila, I. Pediatr. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
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