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Gene Review

Appl  -  beta amyloid protein precursor-like

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: APP, APP-like, APPL, Abeta, BcDNA:GH04413, ...
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Disease relevance of Appl

  • Recently it was shown that A beta aggregates induce neuronal cell death via beta-amyloid peptide-binding protein (BBP), a receptor for A beta in BBP-transfected cells, which is known to be sensitive to pertussis toxin, a G alpha(i/o) family inhibitor [1].
  • Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder related to the formation of protein aggregates. beta-Amyloid protein (A beta), generated by enzymatic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP), can cause such aggregation, and these aggregates may cause neuronal cell death by inducing apoptosis [1].

Psychiatry related information on Appl


High impact information on Appl


Biological context of Appl

  • The Appl transcript spans approximately 38 kb (1 kb = 10(3) base-pairs) of genomic DNA [7].
  • Appl defines a new locus within the 1B division of the X-chromosome, a region previously shown to be important for neural development [7].
  • In this paper, we compare the Appl gene expression with the pattern of expression of the beta-amyloid protein precursor (APP) gene in mammals [7].
  • Electrophysiologically, A-type K+ current was significantly enhanced, and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic potentials (sEPSPs) were greatly increased in APPL mutants lacking sAPPL [8].
  • The dinucleotide-binding consensus sequence and beta 1-alpha A-beta 2, Rossmann fold structure, and beta-sheet structures are completely conserved from mammals to insect [9].

Anatomical context of Appl

  • We present in situ RNA localization data that demonstrate that the Appl transcript is found in post-mitotic neurons in all developmental stages, in the central and peripheral nervous systems [7].
  • APPL immunoreactivity was observed in neuronal cell bodies, axonal tracts, and neuropil regions [10].
  • A key event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the deposition of senile plaques consisting largely of a peptide known as beta-amyloid (Abeta) that is derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) [11].
  • Double-labeling experiments with different neuronal markers were used to distinguish between APPL associated with neuronal processes or extracellular matrix [12].
  • Interestingly, in adult brains, APPL protein is enriched in the mushroom bodies and to a lesser extent in the central complex, structures involved in learning and memory [12].

Associations of Appl with chemical compounds

  • The phosphotyrosine interaction domain of APLIP1 interacts with a sequence containing GYENPTY in the cytoplasmic domain of APPL [13].
  • The findings suggests that the Cu(II)-binding equilibrium at the phylogenetic stage of Drosophila APPL and C. elegans APL-1 is shifted from the exchangeable Cu(II) pool to the tightly bound, nonexchangeable pool and that ancestral CuBDs may exert antioxidation activities in vivo [14].


  1. Beta-amyloid peptide binding protein does not couple to G protein in a heterologous Xenopus expression system. Lee, Y., Chang, D.J., Lee, Y.S., Chang, K.A., Kim, H., Yoon, J.S., Lee, S., Suh, Y.H., Kaang, B.K. J. Neurosci. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. The neurodegeneration mutant löchrig interferes with cholesterol homeostasis and Appl processing. Tschäpe, J.A., Hammerschmied, C., Mühlig-Versen, M., Athenstaedt, K., Daum, G., Kretzschmar, D. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Genetics of the sleep-wake cycle and its disorders. Hamet, P., Tremblay, J. Metab. Clin. Exp. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Disruption of axonal transport and neuronal viability by amyloid precursor protein mutations in Drosophila. Gunawardena, S., Goldstein, L.S. Neuron (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Human amyloid precursor protein ameliorates behavioral deficit of flies deleted for Appl gene. Luo, L., Tully, T., White, K. Neuron (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Drosophila homolog of APP-BP1 (dAPP-BP1) interacts antagonistically with APPL during Drosophila development. Kim, H.J., Kim, S.H., Shim, S.O., Park, E., Kim, C., Kim, K., Tanouye, M.A., Yim, J. Cell Death Differ. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. The Drosophila transcript encoded by the beta-amyloid protein precursor-like gene is restricted to the nervous system. Martin-Morris, L.E., White, K. Development (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Specific functions of Drosophila amyloid precursor-like protein in the development of nervous system and nonneural tissues. Li, Y., Liu, T., Peng, Y., Yuan, C., Guo, A. J. Neurobiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase: structural conservation among different classes of animals and its implications. Uchida, K., Miwa, M. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification, secretion, and neural expression of APPL, a Drosophila protein similar to human amyloid protein precursor. Luo, L.Q., Martin-Morris, L.E., White, K. J. Neurosci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. A reporter for amyloid precursor protein gamma-secretase activity in Drosophila. Guo, M., Hong, E.J., Fernandes, J., Zipursky, S.L., Hay, B.A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. APPL, the Drosophila member of the APP-family, exhibits differential trafficking and processing in CNS neurons. Torroja, L., Luo, L., White, K. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Interaction of Alzheimer's beta -amyloid precursor family proteins with scaffold proteins of the JNK signaling cascade. Taru, H., Iijima, K., Hase, M., Kirino, Y., Yagi, Y., Suzuki, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Evidence for a copper-binding superfamily of the amyloid precursor protein. Simons, A., Ruppert, T., Schmidt, C., Schlicksupp, A., Pipkorn, R., Reed, J., Masters, C.L., White, A.R., Cappai, R., Beyreuther, K., Bayer, T.A., Multhaup, G. Biochemistry (2002) [Pubmed]
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