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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Mushroom Bodies

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Disease relevance of Mushroom Bodies

  • Feminization of parts of the antennal lobe and mushroom body by targeted expression of a female-determining gene transformer+ (tra+) drives the male to court other males [1].

Psychiatry related information on Mushroom Bodies


High impact information on Mushroom Bodies

  • Here we analyse the loss-of-function phenotypes of three Rac GTPases in Drosophila mushroom body neurons [4].
  • The Volado gene is expressed preferentially in mushroom body cells, which are neurons known to mediate olfactory learning in insects [5].
  • Here we show that the alpha-lobes-absent (ala) mutant lacks either the two vertical lobes of the mushroom body or two of the three median lobes which contain branches of vertical lobe neurons [6].
  • Wild-type flies made a discrete choice that switched from one alternative to the other as the relative salience of color and shape cues gradually changed, but this ability was greatly diminished in mutant (mbm1) flies with miniature mushroom bodies or with hydroxyurea ablation of mushroom bodies [7].
  • To investigate the requirement for mushroom body signaling during the different phases of memory processing, we transiently inactivated neurotransmission through this region of the brain by expressing a temperature-sensitive allele of the shibire dynamin guanosine triphosphatase, which is required for synaptic transmission [8].

Biological context of Mushroom Bodies


Anatomical context of Mushroom Bodies


Associations of Mushroom Bodies with chemical compounds


Gene context of Mushroom Bodies

  • Analysis of Dscam diversity in regulating axon guidance in Drosophila mushroom bodies [23].
  • Cell-autonomous requirement of the USP/EcR-B ecdysone receptor for mushroom body neuronal remodeling in Drosophila [24].
  • Genetic control of development of the mushroom bodies, the associative learning centers in the Drosophila brain, by the eyeless, twin of eyeless, and Dachshund genes [25].
  • Thus, Eph/Ephrin signaling acts to guide a subset of mushroom body branches to their correct synaptic targets [26].
  • We report here the identification of a gene that we have named enoki mushroom (enok), which when it is mutated gives rise to mushroom bodies with reduced axonal structures. enok encodes a putative histone acetyltransferase (HAT) of the MYST family, members of which have been implicated as important modulators of transcriptional activity [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Mushroom Bodies


  1. Sexual behavior mutants revisited: molecular and cellular basis of Drosophila mating. Yamamoto, D., Nakano, Y. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Integrins: a role for adhesion molecules in olfactory memory. Connolly, J.B., Tully, T. Curr. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Functional dissection of neuroanatomical loci regulating ethanol sensitivity in Drosophila. Rodan, A.R., Kiger, J.A., Heberlein, U. J. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Rac GTPases control axon growth, guidance and branching. Ng, J., Nardine, T., Harms, M., Tzu, J., Goldstein, A., Sun, Y., Dietzl, G., Dickson, B.J., Luo, L. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Integrin-mediated short-term memory in Drosophila. Grotewiel, M.S., Beck, C.D., Wu, K.H., Zhu, X.R., Davis, R.L. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Localization of long-term memory within the Drosophila mushroom body. Pascual, A., Préat, T. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Choice behavior of Drosophila facing contradictory visual cues. Tang, S., Guo, A. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. The role of Drosophila mushroom body signaling in olfactory memory. McGuire, S.E., Le, P.T., Davis, R.L. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Preferential expression in mushroom bodies of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A and its role in learning and memory. Skoulakis, E.M., Kalderon, D., Davis, R.L. Neuron (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. PAK5, a new brain-specific kinase, promotes neurite outgrowth in N1E-115 cells. Dan, C., Nath, N., Liberto, M., Minden, A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Dopamine and mushroom bodies in Drosophila: experience-dependent and -independent aspects of sexual behavior. Neckameyer, W.S. Learn. Mem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. The mub gene encodes a protein containing three KH domains and is expressed in the mushroom bodies of Drosophila melanogaster. Grams, R., Korge, G. Gene (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Second messenger pathways in the honeybee brain: immunohistochemistry of protein kinase A and protein kinase C. Müller, U. Microsc. Res. Tech. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone enhances neurite growth of Drosophila mushroom body neurons isolated during metamorphosis. Kraft, R., Levine, R.B., Restifo, L.L. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Developmental expression of a tyramine receptor gene in the brain of the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Mustard, J.A., Kurshan, P.T., Hamilton, I.S., Blenau, W., Mercer, A.R. J. Comp. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. GABAergic synapses in the antennal lobe and mushroom body of the locust olfactory system. Leitch, B., Laurent, G. J. Comp. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Limits on volume changes in the mushroom bodies of the honey bee brain. Fahrbach, S.E., Farris, S.M., Sullivan, J.P., Robinson, G.E. J. Neurobiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Viewing odors in the mushroom body of the fly. Carlson, J.R. Trends Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Pharmacological rescue of synaptic plasticity, courtship behavior, and mushroom body defects in a Drosophila model of fragile X syndrome. McBride, S.M., Choi, C.H., Wang, Y., Liebelt, D., Braunstein, E., Ferreiro, D., Sehgal, A., Siwicki, K.K., Dockendorff, T.C., Nguyen, H.T., McDonald, T.V., Jongens, T.A. Neuron (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Nicotinic acetylcholine currents of cultured Kkenyon cells from the mushroom bodies of the honey bee Aapis mellifera. Goldberg, F., Grünewald, B., Rosenboom, H., Menzel, R. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. gamma-Aminobutyric acid receptor distribution in the mushroom bodies of a fly (Calliphora erythrocephala): a functional subdivision of Kenyon cells? Brotz, T.M., Bochenek, B., Aronstein, K., Ffrench-Constant, R.H., Borst, A. J. Comp. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Glutamate-like immunoreactivity marks compartments of the mushroom bodies in the brain of the cricket. Schürmann, F.W., Ottersen, O.P., Honegger, H.W. J. Comp. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Analysis of Dscam diversity in regulating axon guidance in Drosophila mushroom bodies. Zhan, X.L., Clemens, J.C., Neves, G., Hattori, D., Flanagan, J.J., Hummel, T., Vasconcelos, M.L., Chess, A., Zipursky, S.L. Neuron (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Cell-autonomous requirement of the USP/EcR-B ecdysone receptor for mushroom body neuronal remodeling in Drosophila. Lee, T., Marticke, S., Sung, C., Robinow, S., Luo, L. Neuron (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Genetic control of development of the mushroom bodies, the associative learning centers in the Drosophila brain, by the eyeless, twin of eyeless, and Dachshund genes. Kurusu, M., Nagao, T., Walldorf, U., Flister, S., Gehring, W.J., Furukubo-Tokunaga, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Drosophila Eph receptor guides specific axon branches of mushroom body neurons. Boyle, M., Nighorn, A., Thomas, J.B. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. enok encodes a Drosophila putative histone acetyltransferase required for mushroom body neuroblast proliferation. Scott, E.K., Lee, T., Luo, L. Curr. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. The cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase encoded by the Drosophila dunce gene is concentrated in the mushroom body neuropil. Nighorn, A., Healy, M.J., Davis, R.L. Neuron (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. Synaptic connections of cholinergic antennal lobe relay neurons innervating the lateral horn neuropile in the brain of Drosophila melanogaster. Yasuyama, K., Meinertzhagen, I.A., Schürmann, F.W. J. Comp. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Mushroom body feedback interneurones in the honeybee show GABA-like immunoreactivity. Bicker, G., Schäfer, S., Kingan, T.G. Brain Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
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