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Gene Review

APCS  -  amyloid P component, serum

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 9.5S alpha-1-glycoprotein, HEL-S-92n, MGC88159, PTX2, SAP, ...
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Disease relevance of APCS

  • Induction of tolerance by Porphyromonas gingivalis on APCS: a mechanism implicated in periodontal infection [1].
  • For APCS we found that the allele frequency in the MEF-amyloidosis patients was similar to that in 18 unrelated MEF patients without amyloidosis and their 33 healthy parents [2].

High impact information on APCS

  • Multifactor dimensionality reduction indicated that the best genetic model for classical onset group versus controls involved the APCS gene, whereas for late-onset cases, one APCS variant (APCSv1) and two RBP variants (RBPv1 and RBPv2) are involved [3].
  • In humans, the genes for CRP (CRP) and SAP (APCS) map to 1q23.2 within an interval linked with SLE [4].
  • Human gammadelta T cells respond to nonpeptide Ags such as pyrophosphomonoesters and alkylamines in a gammadelta TCR-dependent manner in the absence of other APCS: Recently, aminobisphosphonates such as pamidronate have also been shown to activate human gammadelta T cells [5].
  • We investigated whether dendritic cells, generally considered to be the most potent APCs for the initiation of immune responses, would present either of two forms of Topo I to T cells more efficiently than PBMC APCS: Using cells from healthy controls and SSc patients, several important observations were made [6].
  • Second, T cell responses to the full-length form of Topo I presented by dendritic cells were considerably lower than responses to Ag presented by PBMC APCS: Finally, no secondary T cell responses were observed unless the same Ag/APC combination as that used in the primary stimulation was maintained [6].

Biological context of APCS


Anatomical context of APCS


Associations of APCS with chemical compounds

  • Pure proteins, at concentrations found in normal serum, required about 12 mM lactate for half-dissociation of the hSAP-C4BP complex [10].
  • When measured by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation, complete dissociation of the complex of hSAP (human SAP) with C4b-binding protein (C4BP) occurred at > or = 5 mM lactate [10].

Other interactions of APCS

  • We have investigated the candidate genes CRP and APCS in two cohorts totalling 586 UK simplex SLE families [4].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of APCS

  • Approximately 10.9kb of the CRP-APCS locus was screened for polymorphisms using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and direct sequencing [11].
  • This study was conducted to assess the adaptability of the AUTOGRP Patient Classification System (APCS) to the patient population of western Pennsylvania. The APCS consists of a fixed sex of 383 patient categories, each of which is purported to contain similar patients with respect to resource consumption as measured by length of stay [12].
  • The paper discusses why it may be inappropriate to use the APCS to classify Ontario long term care patients, some of the important financial consequences to a long term care facility if the APCS is inappropriate, and what might be necessary for a better patient classification and funding strategy [13].


  1. Induction of tolerance by Porphyromonas gingivalis on APCS: a mechanism implicated in periodontal infection. Cohen, N., Morisset, J., Emilie, D. J. Dent. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Serum amyloid A and P protein genes in familial Mediterranean fever. Shohat, M., Shohat, T., Rotter, J.I., Schlesinger, M., Petersen, G.M., Pribyl, T., Sack, G., Schwabe, A.D., Korenberg, J.R. Genomics (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Susceptibility and modifier genes in Portuguese transthyretin V30M amyloid polyneuropathy: complexity in a single-gene disease. Soares, M.L., Coelho, T., Sousa, A., Batalov, S., Conceição, I., Sales-Luís, M.L., Ritchie, M.D., Williams, S.M., Nievergelt, C.M., Schork, N.J., Saraiva, M.J., Buxbaum, J.N. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Polymorphism at the C-reactive protein locus influences gene expression and predisposes to systemic lupus erythematosus. Russell, A.I., Cunninghame Graham, D.S., Shepherd, C., Roberton, C.A., Whittaker, J., Meeks, J., Powell, R.J., Isenberg, D.A., Walport, M.J., Vyse, T.J. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Essential requirement of antigen presentation by monocyte lineage cells for the activation of primary human gamma delta T cells by aminobisphosphonate antigen. Miyagawa, F., Tanaka, Y., Yamashita, S., Minato, N. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Distinct autoreactive T cell responses to native and fragmented DNA topoisomerase I: influence of APC type and IL-2. Oriss, T.B., Hu, P.Q., Wright, T.M. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Reactivity of anti-human C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid P component (SAP) monoclonal antibodies with limulin and pentraxins of other species. Ying, S.C., Marchalonis, J.J., Gewurz, A.T., Siegel, J.N., Jiang, H., Gewurz, B.E., Gewurz, H. Immunology (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Binding of human serum amyloid P component (hSAP) to human neutrophils. Landsmann, P., Rosen, O., Pontet, M., Pras, M., Levartowsky, D., Shephard, E.G., Fridkin, M. Eur. J. Biochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Suggestive linkage of familial primary cutaneous amyloidosis to a locus on chromosome 1q23. Lin, M.W., Lee, D.D., Lin, C.H., Huang, C.Y., Wong, C.K., Chang, Y.T., Liu, H.N., Hsiao, K.J., Tsai, S.F. Br. J. Dermatol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Dissociation of serum amyloid P from C4b-binding protein and other sites by lactic acid: potential role of lactic acid in the regulation of pentraxin function. Evans, T.C., Nelsestuen, G.L. Biochemistry (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. A C-reactive protein promoter polymorphism is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pima Indians. Wolford, J.K., Gruber, J.D., Ossowski, V.M., Vozarova, B., Antonio Tataranni, P., Bogardus, C., Hanson, R.L. Mol. Genet. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Assessment of the AUTOGRP patient classification system. Young, W.W., Swinkola, R.B., Hutton, M.A. Medical care. (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. Issues in the use of the Alberta Patient Classification System to fund Ontario long term care. Pink, G.H., O'Brien-Pallas, L.L., Leatt, P. Canadian journal of nursing administration. (1994) [Pubmed]
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