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Gene Review

amn  -  amnesiac

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: Amn, Amnesiac neuropeptides, CG11937, Dmel\CG11937, Drm-amn, ...
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Psychiatry related information on amn


High impact information on amn

  • Moreover, restoration of amn gene expression to these cells reestablishes normal olfactory memory in an amn deletion background [3].
  • Mutations in the amnesiac gene in Drosophila affect both memory retention and ethanol sensitivity [3].
  • One suppressor mutation that was recovered mapped in the amnesiac (amn) gene [4].
  • Notably, both the memory and AMI defects of amn mutants are restored in amn;DCO/+ double mutants, suggesting that AMI is caused by an age-related disruption of amn-dependent memory via PKA activity in mushroom bodies [5].
  • This modification occurred only in the alpha branch of the neurons and was blocked by mutation of the amnesiac gene, inhibition of protein synthesis, or the expression of a protein blocker of the transcription factor Creb [6].

Biological context of amn

  • The absence of AMI in amn flies is restored by expression of an amn transgene predominantly in DPM cells [7].
  • With the use of a UAS-amn(+) transgene, we show complete rescue of memory defects in amn(28A), a mutant allele caused by the insertion of a GAL4 enhancer trap transposon (Moore et al., 1998) [8].
  • Blockade of synaptic transmission in the amnesiac-expressing cells disrupts memory, but not learning, suggesting presynaptic and postsynaptic sites for memory formation [9].
  • Conditional genetic ablation of neurotransmitter release from these neurons mimics the amnesiac memory phenotypes, suggesting an acute role for amnesiac in memory [10].
  • This conclusion is supported by the fact that amn males carrying the Y-linked X-chromosome duplication y+ Ymal106 (which spans 18F4-5 to 20A) produce wild-type learning and memory scores [2].

Associations of amn with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of amn

  • Since amnesiac encodes peptides that enhance adenylyl cyclase activity, these studies suggest the importance of the cAMP signaling pathway in AMI in Drosophila, a finding consistent with several models of AMI in mammals [14].

Other interactions of amn

  • We also show that under these conditions the behavior of PKA-RI males is similar to that of amnesiac, dunce and rutabaga males [15].
  • The Drosophila mutants amnesiac, dunce (dnc), and rutabaga were isolated after associative conditioning tests, during which animals were trained to associate the presence of an odor with that of electric shocks (ES) [16].
  • Revisiting three paradigmatic mutations altering olfactory learning and memory in Drosophila (dunce, leonardo, amnesiac) a link was established between each mutation and the operation of VDICs in Kenyon cells, the intrinsic neurons of the mushroom bodies (MBs) [17].


  1. Mutations in the dopa decarboxylase gene affect learning in Drosophila. Tempel, B.L., Livingstone, M.S., Quinn, W.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Deletion mapping of the Drosophila memory mutant amnesiac. Tully, T., Gergen, J.P. J. Neurogenet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. The amnesiac gene product is expressed in two neurons in the Drosophila brain that are critical for memory. Waddell, S., Armstrong, J.D., Kitamoto, T., Kaiser, K., Quinn, W.G. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. A neuropeptide gene defined by the Drosophila memory mutant amnesiac. Feany, M.B., Quinn, W.G. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. The Drosophila DCO mutation suppresses age-related memory impairment without affecting lifespan. Yamazaki, D., Horiuchi, J., Nakagami, Y., Nagano, S., Tamura, T., Saitoe, M. Nat. Neurosci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Drosophila alpha/beta Mushroom Body Neurons Form a Branch-Specific, Long-Term Cellular Memory Trace after Spaced Olfactory Conditioning. Yu, D., Akalal, D.B., Davis, R.L. Neuron (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Aging specifically impairs amnesiac-dependent memory in Drosophila. Tamura, T., Chiang, A.S., Ito, N., Liu, H.P., Horiuchi, J., Tully, T., Saitoe, M. Neuron (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Developmental expression of an amn(+) transgene rescues the mutant memory defect of amnesiac adults. DeZazzo, J., Xia, S., Christensen, J., Velinzon, K., Tully, T. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Functional anatomy: from molecule to memory. Dubnau, J., Tully, T. Curr. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Higher brain functions of PACAP and a homologous Drosophila memory gene amnesiac: insights from knockouts and mutants. Hashimoto, H., Shintani, N., Baba, A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Modulation of L-type calcium channels in Drosophila via a pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-mediated pathway. Bhattacharya, A., Lakhman, S.S., Singh, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Mushroom bodies, Ca(2+) oscillations, and the memory gene amnesiac. Davis, R.L. Neuron (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Modulation of Drosophila heartbeat by neurotransmitters. Johnson, E., Ringo, J., Dowse, H. J. Comp. Physiol. B, Biochem. Syst. Environ. Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Drosophila as a novel animal model for studying the genetics of age-related memory impairment. Saitoe, M., Horiuchi, J., Tamura, T., Ito, N. Reviews in the neurosciences. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Abnormal courtship conditioning in males mutant for the RI regulatory subunit of Drosophila protein kinase A. O'Dell, K.M., Jamieson, D., Goodwin, S.F., Kaiser, K. J. Neurogenet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Decreased odor avoidance after electric shock in Drosophila mutants biases learning and memory tests. Préat, T. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Bridging behavior and physiology: Ion-channel perspective on mushroom body-dependent olfactory learning and memory in Drosophila. Gasque, G., Labarca, P., Delgado, R., Darszon, A. J. Cell. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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