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MeSH Review

Conditioning, Classical

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Disease relevance of Conditioning, Classical

  • An in vitro preparation consisting of the siphon, mantle, gill, and abdominal ganglion undergoes classical conditioning when a weak tactile stimulus (CS) applied to the siphon is paired with a strong tactile stimulus to the gill (UCS) [1].
  • The apomorphine (A)-induced stereotypy and the conditioned reflex activity were inhibited by extremely low doses of H, while somewhat higher doses were needed to induce catalepsy or to suppress the A-elicited turning behaviour in rats with unilateral nigral lesion [2].

Psychiatry related information on Conditioning, Classical

  • Evidence for classical conditioning of cocaine's motor-activity effects and context-specific behavioral sensitization to cocaine was obtained, relative to vehicle-treated (control) and pseudoconditioned (unpaired) groups [3].
  • On the basis of what is known about the neural circuitry essential or normally involved in eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC), the pattern of neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease (HD) would not appear to interfere with this type of learning [4].
  • Using conditioned-reflex methods for active and passive avoidance with punishment reinforcement, we found pronounced memory deficits in 12-week old rats exposed perinatally to alcohol (FAS rats) [5].

High impact information on Conditioning, Classical


Chemical compound and disease context of Conditioning, Classical

  • Employing a classical conditioning paradigm in which faces were conditioned by pairing with an aversive tone (US), we compared responses evoked by conditioned (CS+) and nonconditioned (CS-) stimuli [11].
  • Alternatively, this additional modulation of Ca2+ by 5-HT might contribute to processes such as classical conditioning or long-term sensitization that may depend on Ca2+ [12].
  • This form of classical conditioning is of considerable clinical relevance as intense craving can be evoked by the presentation of stimuli previously associated with the effects of cocaine [13].
  • Cellular analog of differential classical conditioning in Aplysia: disruption by the NMDA receptor antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate [14].
  • These several results suggested that the dually regulated adenylate cyclase might underlie the temporal requirements for effective classical conditioning in this system [15].

Biological context of Conditioning, Classical


Anatomical context of Conditioning, Classical


Gene context of Conditioning, Classical


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Conditioning, Classical


  1. In vitro classical conditioning of a gill withdrawal reflex in Aplysia: neural correlates and possible neural mechanisms. Lukowiak, K. J. Neurobiol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Morphine and [D-Met2,Pro5]enkephalinamide do not show specific neuroleptic activity. Sineger, E., Horváth, K., Miglécz, E., Tarnawa, I., Andrási, F., Székely, J.I. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. Behavioral sensitization to cocaine, but not cocaine-conditioned behavior, is associated with increased dopamine occupation of its receptors in the nucleus accumbens. Burechailo, L., Martin-Iverson, M.T. Behav. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Huntington's disease and eyeblink classical conditioning: normal learning but abnormal timing. Woodruff-Pak, D.S., Papka, M. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Learning and memory in rats exposed pre- and postnatally to alcohol. An attempt at pharmacological control. Petkov, V.D., Konstantinova, E.R., Petkov, V.V., Vaglenova, J.V. Methods and findings in experimental and clinical pharmacology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of the nigrostriatal dopamine system on acquired neural responses in the striatum of behaving monkeys. Aosaki, T., Graybiel, A.M., Kimura, M. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Stress-induced facilitation of classical conditioning. Shors, T.J., Weiss, C., Thompson, R.F. Science (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Classical conditioning: induction of luteinizing hormone and testosterone secretion in anticipation of sexual activity. Graham, J.M., Desjardins, C. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  9. The MAPK cascade is required for mammalian associative learning. Atkins, C.M., Selcher, J.C., Petraitis, J.J., Trzaskos, J.M., Sweatt, J.D. Nat. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Nucleus accumbens neurons are innately tuned for rewarding and aversive taste stimuli, encode their predictors, and are linked to motor output. Roitman, M.F., Wheeler, R.A., Carelli, R.M. Neuron (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Brain systems mediating aversive conditioning: an event-related fMRI study. Büchel, C., Morris, J., Dolan, R.J., Friston, K.J. Neuron (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Serotonin increases intracellular Ca2+ transients in voltage-clamped sensory neurons of Aplysia californica. Boyle, M.B., Klein, M., Smith, S.J., Kandel, E.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Evidence for conditional neuronal activation following exposure to a cocaine-paired environment: role of forebrain limbic structures. Brown, E.E., Robertson, G.S., Fibiger, H.C. J. Neurosci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Cellular analog of differential classical conditioning in Aplysia: disruption by the NMDA receptor antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate. Murphy, G.G., Glanzman, D.L. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Biochemical studies of stimulus convergence during classical conditioning in Aplysia: dual regulation of adenylate cyclase by Ca2+/calmodulin and transmitter. Abrams, T.W., Karl, K.A., Kandel, E.R. J. Neurosci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by one-trial and multi-trial classical conditioning. Crow, T., Xue-Bian, J.J., Siddiqi, V., Kang, Y., Neary, J.T. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Cortical evoked potential changes during classical conditioning of morphine dependence in rats. Beck, S.G., O'Brien, J.H. Exp. Neurol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Classically conditioned alterations in single motor unit activity in the spinal cat. Misulis, K.E., Durkovic, R.G. Behav. Brain Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  19. Rabbit cerebellar slice analysis of long-term depression and its role in classical conditioning. Schreurs, B.G., Alkon, D.L. Brain Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Learning of physiological responses: II. Classical conditioning of the baroreflex. Dworkin, B.R., Dworkin, S. Behav. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Analysis of glucose and lactate in hippocampal dialysates of rats during the operant conditioned reflex using microdialysis. Dong, Y., Wang, L., Shangguan, D., Yu, X., Zhao, R., Han, H., Liu, G. Neurochem. Int. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Dopamine efflux in nucleus accumbens shell and core in response to appetitive classical conditioning. Cheng, J.J., de Bruin, J.P., Feenstra, M.G. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of serotonin 5-HT(2A/2C) antagonists on associative learning in the rabbit. Welsh, S.E., Romano, A.G., Harvey, J.A. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Short-term sensory learning does not alter parvalbumin neurons in the barrel cortex of adult mice: a double-labeling study. Siucinska, E., Kossut, M. Neuroscience (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Immune response inhibits associative learning in insects. Mallon, E.B., Brockmann, A., Schmid-Hempel, P. Proc. Biol. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. mGluR1 in cerebellar Purkinje cells is required for normal association of temporally contiguous stimuli in classical conditioning. Kishimoto, Y., Fujimichi, R., Araishi, K., Kawahara, S., Kano, M., Aiba, A., Kirino, Y. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Identification of linotte, a new gene affecting learning and memory in Drosophila melanogaster. Dura, J.M., Preat, T., Tully, T. J. Neurogenet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Ryanodine receptor modulation of in vitro associative learning in Hermissenda crassicornis. Blackwell, K.T., Alkon, D.L. Brain Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. In vitro eye-blink classical conditioning is NMDA receptor dependent and involves redistribution of AMPA receptor subunit GluR4. Keifer, J. J. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Classical conditioning in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety disorders: a test of Quay's model. Pliszka, S.R., Hatch, J.P., Borcherding, S.H., Rogeness, G.A. Journal of abnormal child psychology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Behavior therapy: endogenous serotonin therapy? Baer, L. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Role for calbindin-D28K in in vitro classical conditioning of abducens nerve responses in turtles. Keifer, J., Brewer, B.T., Meehan, P.E., Brue, R.J., Clark, T.G. Synapse (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. The action of mexidol on the state of conditioned reflex activity after traumatic brain lesions. Mering, T.A. Neurosci. Behav. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Effect of clonazepam and electrolesions of the dorsal and medial raphe nuclei on learning. Petkov, V.V. Acta physiologica et pharmacologica Bulgarica. (1980) [Pubmed]
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