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Gene Review

Vang  -  Van Gogh

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG8075, Dmel\CG8075, Stb, Stbm, Vang/Stbm, ...
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Disease relevance of Vang


High impact information on Vang

  • Here we show that a mutation in Vangl2, a mammalian homologue of the Drosophila PCP gene Strabismus/Van Gogh, results in significant disruptions in the polarization of stereociliary bundles in mouse cochlea as a result of defects in the direction of movement and/or anchoring of the kinocilium within each hair cell [2].
  • Here we show that this important process depends on a functional complex formed between the tumour suppressor and adaptor protein Discs-Large (Dlg) and the integral membrane protein Strabismus (Stbm)/Van Gogh (Vang) [3].
  • Conversely, overexpression of Dlg and Stbm synergistically induced excessive plasma membrane formation [3].
  • These findings suggest that the Dlg-Stbm complex recruits membrane-associated proteins and lipids from internal membranes to sites of new plasma membrane formation [3].
  • In regard to cell behaviour, both gain-of-function and loss-of-function assays reveal a role for Stbm in mediating cell movements during gastrulation [4].

Biological context of Vang


Anatomical context of Vang

  • We show that Strabismus binds directly to Dishevelled and Prickle and is able to recruit them to membranes [10].
  • We demonstrate that in the zebrafish gastrula, Fmi1 proteins function in concert with each other and with the vertebrate PCP proteins, Wnt11 and Strabismus, to mediate convergence and extension during gastrulation, without altering early dorso-ventral patterning [11].
  • It has been suggested that this polarity might be controlled by genes homologous to those that control planar cell polarity (PCP) in Drosophila, and vertebrate homologues of the Drosophila PCP genes Van Gogh/strabismus and flamingo/starry night are indeed essential for normal hair cell PCP [12].

Physical interactions of Vang

  • Thus our data suggest that the Stbm/Pk complex modulates Fz/Dsh activity, resulting in a symmetry-breaking step during polarity signaling [5].
  • PCP is induced in Drosophila by the asymmetrical localization of Frizzled-Dishevelled-Diego-Starry night (Flamingo) complex and Van Gogh (Strabismus)-Prickle complex [13].

Regulatory relationships of Vang

  • The planar cell polarity protein Strabismus promotes Pins anterior localization during asymmetric division of sensory organ precursor cells in Drosophila [6].
  • While neither of these proteins is required for the other's localization, Prickle localization is influenced by Strabismus function [7].

Other interactions of Vang

  • Through this interaction, Pk affects Stbm membrane localization and can cause clustering of Stbm [5].
  • We propose that the Stbm-dependent recruitment of Pins at the anterior cortex of the pI cell is a novel read-out of planar cell polarity [6].
  • Flamingo and Strabismus co-localize for several rows posterior to the morphogenetic furrow and subsequently diverge [7].
  • In the absence of strabismus activity, the planar polarity proteins Dishevelled and Prickle are mislocalised in the cell [10].
  • Unlike these proteins, however, Stbm has little effect on conventional Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in either frog or fly assays [14].


  1. A genetic screen identifies putative targets and binding partners of CREB-binding protein in the developing Drosophila eye. Anderson, J., Bhandari, R., Kumar, J.P. Genetics (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification of Vangl2 and Scrb1 as planar polarity genes in mammals. Montcouquiol, M., Rachel, R.A., Lanford, P.J., Copeland, N.G., Jenkins, N.A., Kelley, M.W. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Discs-Large and Strabismus are functionally linked to plasma membrane formation. Lee, O.K., Frese, K.K., James, J.S., Chadda, D., Chen, Z.H., Javier, R.T., Cho, K.O. Nat. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. The planar cell-polarity gene stbm regulates cell behaviour and cell fate in vertebrate embryos. Park, M., Moon, R.T. Nat. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Prickle and Strabismus form a functional complex to generate a correct axis during planar cell polarity signaling. Jenny, A., Darken, R.S., Wilson, P.A., Mlodzik, M. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. The planar cell polarity protein Strabismus promotes Pins anterior localization during asymmetric division of sensory organ precursor cells in Drosophila. Bellaïche, Y., Beaudoin-Massiani, O., Stuttem, I., Schweisguth, F. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Strabismus requires Flamingo and Prickle function to regulate tissue polarity in the Drosophila eye. Rawls, A.S., Wolff, T. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Zebrafish trilobite identifies new roles for Strabismus in gastrulation and neuronal movements. Jessen, J.R., Topczewski, J., Bingham, S., Sepich, D.S., Marlow, F., Chandrasekhar, A., Solnica-Krezel, L. Nat. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Van Gogh: a new Drosophila tissue polarity gene. Taylor, J., Abramova, N., Charlton, J., Adler, P.N. Genetics (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Strabismus is asymmetrically localised and binds to Prickle and Dishevelled during Drosophila planar polarity patterning. Bastock, R., Strutt, H., Strutt, D. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Combinatorial activity of Flamingo proteins directs convergence and extension within the early zebrafish embryo via the planar cell polarity pathway. Formstone, C.J., Mason, I. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Planar polarity of hair cells in the chick inner ear is correlated with polarized distribution of c-flamingo-1 protein. Davies, A., Formstone, C., Mason, I., Lewis, J. Dev. Dyn. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. WNT/PCP signaling pathway and human cancer (review). Katoh, M. Oncol. Rep. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. The planar polarity gene strabismus regulates convergent extension movements in Xenopus. Darken, R.S., Scola, A.M., Rakeman, A.S., Das, G., Mlodzik, M., Wilson, P.A. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
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