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Gene Review

Vangl1  -  vang-like 1 (van gogh, Drosophila)

Mus musculus

Synonyms: KITENIN, Kitenin, Loop-tail protein 2, Lpp2, Stb2, ...
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Disease relevance of Vangl1


Psychiatry related information on Vangl1


High impact information on Vangl1

  • Most forms of strabismus are multifactorial in origin; although there is probably an inherited component, the genetics of these disorders remain unclear [5].
  • The planar cell-polarity gene stbm regulates cell behaviour and cell fate in vertebrate embryos [6].
  • 90K was increased in the culture medium from CT-26/antisense KITENIN/90K cells [1].
  • Moreover, increased levels of KITENIN were observed in a human gastric tumor and its metastatic tissues, compared with the normal adjacent mucosa [7].
  • Studies in model organisms indicate that Vangl proteins play a key developmental role in establishing planar cell polarity (PCP) and in regulating convergent extension (CE) movements during embryogenesis [8].

Biological context of Vangl1

  • Differentiation of 3T3F442A preadipocytes into adipocytes led to an 80% reduction in ecto-LPA phosphatase activity, with a concomitant down-regulation in Lpp1, Lpp2, and Lpp3 mRNA expression [9].
  • Recent studies using a mouse model of colon cancer, have suggested that KITENIN might be a metastasis enhancer whose functions are modulated by an interaction with KAI1/CD82 [10].

Anatomical context of Vangl1

  • To begin to elucidate the mechanisms of PCP in vertebrates, the localization of the protein Vangl2 (Van Gogh-like) was determined during the development of the mammalian cochlea [11].

Other interactions of Vangl1

  • Vangl1 and Prickle1 had expression canvases different from each other and from other candidates, indicating unrelated function [12].


  1. Suppression of progression and metastasis of established colon tumors in mice by intravenous delivery of short interfering RNA targeting KITENIN, a metastasis-enhancing protein. Lee, J.H., Cho, E.S., Kim, M.Y., Seo, Y.W., Kho, D.H., Chung, I.J., Kook, H., Kim, N.S., Ahn, K.Y., Kim, K.K. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Oa1 knock-out: new insights on the pathogenesis of ocular albinism type 1. Incerti, B., Cortese, K., Pizzigoni, A., Surace, E.M., Varani, S., Coppola, M., Jeffery, G., Seeliger, M., Jaissle, G., Bennett, D.C., Marigo, V., Schiaffino, M.V., Tacchetti, C., Ballabio, A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Lysosomal localization of TRPML3 depends on TRPML2 and the mucolipidosis-associated protein TRPML1. Venkatachalam, K., Hofmann, T., Montell, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Autosomal recessive cerebellar hypoplasia. Mathews, K.D., Afifi, A.K., Hanson, J.W. J. Child Neurol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Homozygous mutations in ARIX(PHOX2A) result in congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 2. Nakano, M., Yamada, K., Fain, J., Sener, E.C., Selleck, C.J., Awad, A.H., Zwaan, J., Mullaney, P.B., Bosley, T.M., Engle, E.C. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. The planar cell-polarity gene stbm regulates cell behaviour and cell fate in vertebrate embryos. Park, M., Moon, R.T. Nat. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. KAI1 COOH-terminal interacting tetraspanin (KITENIN), a member of the tetraspanin family, interacts with KAI1, a tumor metastasis suppressor, and enhances metastasis of cancer. Lee, J.H., Park, S.R., Chay, K.O., Seo, Y.W., Kook, H., Ahn, K.Y., Kim, Y.J., Kim, K.K. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Independent mutations in mouse Vangl2 that cause neural tube defects in looptail mice impair interaction with members of the Dishevelled family. Torban, E., Wang, H.J., Groulx, N., Gros, P. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression of ectolipid phosphate phosphohydrolases in 3T3F442A preadipocytes and adipocytes. Involvement in the control of lysophosphatidic acid production. Simon, M.F., Rey, A., Castan-Laurel, I., Grés, S., Sibrac, D., Valet, P., Saulnier-Blache, J.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of KITENIN, a KAI1/CD82 binding protein and metastasis enhancer, in bladder cancer cell lines: Relationship to KAI1/CD82 levels and invasive behaviour. Rowe, A., Jackson, P. Oncol. Rep. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Asymmetric localization of Vangl2 and Fz3 indicate novel mechanisms for planar cell polarity in mammals. Montcouquiol, M., Sans, N., Huss, D., Kach, J., Dickman, J.D., Forge, A., Rachel, R.A., Copeland, N.G., Jenkins, N.A., Bogani, D., Murdoch, J., Warchol, M.E., Wenthold, R.J., Kelley, M.W. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression of planar cell polarity genes during development of the mouse CNS. Tissir, F., Goffinet, A.M. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
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