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Gene Review

stan  -  starry night

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG11895, CT20776, Dmel\CG11895, Flam, Fmi, ...
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High impact information on stan

  • Recent studies have demonstrated a crucial role for several atypical cadherin molecules (Fat, Dachsous and Flamingo) in controlling PCP signalling [1].
  • We propose that Flamingo-mediated interactions between R-cell growth cones within the target field regulate target selection [2].
  • Loss of fmi function in R cells also disrupts the local pattern of synaptic terminals in the medulla, and Flamingo is transiently expressed in R8 axons as they enter the target region [2].
  • The formation of normal dendritic fields and the competition between dendrites of homologous neurons require the proper expression level of Flamingo, a G protein-coupled receptor-like protein, in embryonic neurons [3].
  • We propose that Wnt11, by interacting with Frizzled 7 and Flamingo, modulates local cell contact persistence to coordinate cell movements during gastrulation [4].

Biological context of stan

  • The detailed polarity phenotype of stan on the wing suggested that it is most likely a component of the frizzled (fz) pathway [5].
  • During mitosis of the SOP, the axis of the pl division and the positioning of the Numb crescent were randomized in the absence of Fmi activity [6].
  • We further show that although the DME cells are polarised in the plane of the epithelium and present polarised localisation of proteins associated with the process of planar cell polarity (PCP) in the wing, e.g. Flamingo, PCP Wingless signalling is not involved in DC [7].
  • Reorganization of the cell surface and cytoskeleton is required, and recent work has focused on how cell adhesion molecules (such as Fat, Dachsous and Flamingo) function in this process [8].
  • We propose that a dual molecular function of Fmi play pivotal roles in dendrite morphogenesis [9].

Anatomical context of stan

  • However, stan mutant neurons occasionally send sparsely branched processes beyond these territories that could potentially mix with adjacent like dendrites [10].

Physical interactions of stan

  • PCP is induced in Drosophila by the asymmetrical localization of Frizzled-Dishevelled-Diego-Starry night (Flamingo) complex and Van Gogh (Strabismus)-Prickle complex [11].
  • Furthermore, we show that TmII genetically interacted with flamingo, a gene encoding a membrane receptor-like molecule that affects dendritic growth [12].

Co-localisations of stan

  • A portion of Dsh colocalized with Fmi, and the distributions of both proteins were interdependent [13].
  • This work identifies a tissue polarity gene, diego, that comprises six ankyrin repeats and colocalizes with Flamingo at proximal/distal boundaries [14].

Regulatory relationships of stan

  • Subsequently, Fmi is upregulated in R4 by Notch and functions to downregulate Dl expression by antagonizing Fz signaling [15].
  • Our data suggest that Frizzled acts through Diego to promote local clustering of Flamingo, and that clustering of Diego and Flamingo in one cell nonautonomously propagates to others [14].

Other interactions of stan

  • These interactions suggest a positive feedback loop initiated by Fz that results in the apical maintenance of other PCP factors through Fmi [16].
  • Flamingo and Strabismus co-localize for several rows posterior to the morphogenetic furrow and subsequently diverge [17].
  • Strabismus requires Flamingo and Prickle function to regulate tissue polarity in the Drosophila eye [17].
  • Here, we report that Flamingo (Fmi), a seven-transmembrane cadherin [5], controls the planar polarity of sensory bristles and the orientation of the SOP pl division [6].
  • Asymmetric colocalization of Flamingo, a seven-pass transmembrane cadherin, and Dishevelled in planar cell polarization [13].


  1. Organising cells into tissues: new roles for cell adhesion molecules in planar cell polarity. Saburi, S., McNeill, H. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. The protocadherin Flamingo is required for axon target selection in the Drosophila visual system. Lee, R.C., Clandinin, T.R., Lee, C.H., Chen, P.L., Meinertzhagen, I.A., Zipursky, S.L. Nat. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Control of dendritic field formation in Drosophila: the roles of flamingo and competition between homologous neurons. Gao, F.B., Kohwi, M., Brenman, J.E., Jan, L.Y., Jan, Y.N. Neuron (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Wnt11 controls cell contact persistence by local accumulation of Frizzled 7 at the plasma membrane. Witzel, S., Zimyanin, V., Carreira-Barbosa, F., Tada, M., Heisenberg, C.P. J. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. The Drosophila tissue polarity gene starry night encodes a member of the protocadherin family. Chae, J., Kim, M.J., Goo, J.H., Collier, S., Gubb, D., Charlton, J., Adler, P.N., Park, W.J. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Flamingo controls the planar polarity of sensory bristles and asymmetric division of sensory organ precursors in Drosophila. Lu, B., Usui, T., Uemura, T., Jan, L., Jan, Y.N. Curr. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Armadillo/beta-catenin-dependent Wnt signalling is required for the polarisation of epidermal cells during dorsal closure in Drosophila. Morel, V., Arias, A.M. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Planar polarity from flies to vertebrates. Fanto, M., McNeill, H. J. Cell. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Potential dual molecular interaction of the Drosophila 7-pass transmembrane cadherin Flamingo in dendritic morphogenesis. Kimura, H., Usui, T., Tsubouchi, A., Uemura, T. J. Cell. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Tiling of the Drosophila epidermis by multidendritic sensory neurons. Grueber, W.B., Jan, L.Y., Jan, Y.N. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. WNT/PCP signaling pathway and human cancer (review). Katoh, M. Oncol. Rep. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Actin filament-stabilizing protein tropomyosin regulates the size of dendritic fields. Li, W., Gao, F.B. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Asymmetric colocalization of Flamingo, a seven-pass transmembrane cadherin, and Dishevelled in planar cell polarization. Shimada, Y., Usui, T., Yanagawa, S., Takeichi, M., Uemura, T. Curr. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. The ankyrin repeat protein Diego mediates Frizzled-dependent planar polarization. Feiguin, F., Hannus, M., Mlodzik, M., Eaton, S. Dev. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. The atypical cadherin Flamingo links Frizzled and Notch signaling in planar polarity establishment in the Drosophila eye. Das, G., Reynolds-Kenneally, J., Mlodzik, M. Dev. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Diego interacts with Prickle and Strabismus/Van Gogh to localize planar cell polarity complexes. Das, G., Jenny, A., Klein, T.J., Eaton, S., Mlodzik, M. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Strabismus requires Flamingo and Prickle function to regulate tissue polarity in the Drosophila eye. Rawls, A.S., Wolff, T. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
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