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Gene Review

shot  -  short stop

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 42/4, CG18076, CG18637, Dmel\CG18076, Grv, ...
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High impact information on shot

  • These attributes provide a clear explanation for the kakapo mutant phenotype in flies [1].
  • The properties of MACF are consistent with the observation that mutations in kakapo cause disorganization of microtubules in epidermal muscle attachment cells and some sensory neurons [2].
  • A major defect in the kakapo mutant tendon cells is the failure of Vein to be localized at the muscle-tendon junctional site; instead, Vein is dispersed and its levels are reduced [3].
  • These results suggest that the Kakapo protein forms essential links among integrins, actin, and microtubules [4].
  • This may lead to aberrant differentiation of tendon cells and consequently to the kakapo mutant deranged somatic muscle phenotype [3].

Biological context of shot

  • Expression of constitutively active RhoA in all tracheal cells mimics the shot phenotype and affects Shot localization in fusion cells [5].
  • These results suggest that Shot coordinates regulated interactions between F-actin and microtubules that are crucial for neuronal morphogenesis [6].
  • Here, we describe the cloning and the molecular and genetic analyses of kakapo, a Drosophila gene, expressed in the tendons, that is essential for muscle-dependent tendon cell differentiation [3].
  • We uncovered four alleles of l(2)CA4 and mapped it to bands 50A-C on the polytene chromosomes and found it to be allelic to kakapo (. Genetics. 146:275- 285) [7].
  • Kakapo is strongly expressed late during embryogenesis at the most prominent site of position-specific integrin adhesion, the muscle attachment sites [4].

Anatomical context of shot

  • Phenotypic analysis of short stop/kakapo, which encodes a large cytoskeletal linker protein, reveals a novel function in regulating microtubule polarity in neurons [8].
  • We identify Shot isoforms that contain N-terminal F-actin and C-terminal microtubule-binding domains, and that crosslink F-actin and microtubules in cultured cells [6].
  • RESULTS: To address how Shot exerts its activity at the molecular level, we investigated the molecular interactions of Shot with candidate proteins in mature larval tendon cells [9].
  • The fusome is necessary for the microtubule-driven restriction of markers of oocyte fate to the oocyte, but the mechanism by which the fusome organizes the microtubules is not known.RESULTS: We have identified the spectraplakin Short stop (Shot) as a new component of the fusome [10].
  • Within the central nervous system of kakapo mutant embryos, neuronal dendrites of the RP3 motorneuron form at correct positions, but are significantly reduced in size [7].

Associations of shot with chemical compounds

  • As tracheal branches join together in Drosophila melanogaster embryos, specialized cells at the junction form a new E-cadherin-based contact and assemble an associated track of F-actin and the plakin Short Stop (shot) [5].
  • A Ca(2+)-binding motif located adjacent to the microtubule-binding domain is also required for axon extension, suggesting that intracellular Ca(2+) release may regulate Shot activity [6].
  • Mutations in kakapo were recovered in genetic screens designed to isolate genes required for integrin-mediated adhesion in Drosophila [4].

Co-localisations of shot

  • We show that Shot colocalizes with EB1/APC1 and with a compact microtubule array extending between the muscle-tendon junction and the cuticle [9].

Other interactions of shot

  • In tendon cells with reduced Shot activity, EB1/APC1 dissociate from the muscle-tendon junction, and the microtubule array elongates [9].
  • kakapo, a gene required for adhesion between and within cell layers in Drosophila, encodes a large cytoskeletal linker protein related to plectin and dystrophin [4].


  1. An epidermal plakin that integrates actin and microtubule networks at cellular junctions. Karakesisoglou, I., Yang, Y., Fuchs, E. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Microtubule actin cross-linking factor (MACF): a hybrid of dystonin and dystrophin that can interact with the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. Leung, C.L., Sun, D., Zheng, M., Knowles, D.R., Liem, R.K. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Kakapo, a novel cytoskeletal-associated protein is essential for the restricted localization of the neuregulin-like factor, vein, at the muscle-tendon junction site. Strumpf, D., Volk, T. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. kakapo, a gene required for adhesion between and within cell layers in Drosophila, encodes a large cytoskeletal linker protein related to plectin and dystrophin. Gregory, S.L., Brown, N.H. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. The plakin Short Stop and the RhoA GTPase are required for E-cadherin-dependent apical surface remodeling during tracheal tube fusion. Lee, S., Kolodziej, P.A. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Short Stop provides an essential link between F-actin and microtubules during axon extension. Lee, S., Kolodziej, P.A. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. The kakapo mutation affects terminal arborization and central dendritic sprouting of Drosophila motorneurons. Prokop, A., Uhler, J., Roote, J., Bate, M. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. A mosaic genetic screen for genes necessary for Drosophila mushroom body neuronal morphogenesis. Reuter, J.E., Nardine, T.M., Penton, A., Billuart, P., Scott, E.K., Usui, T., Uemura, T., Luo, L. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Shortstop recruits EB1/APC1 and promotes microtubule assembly at the muscle-tendon junction. Subramanian, A., Prokop, A., Yamamoto, M., Sugimura, K., Uemura, T., Betschinger, J., Knoblich, J.A., Volk, T. Curr. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. A spectraplakin is enriched on the fusome and organizes microtubules during oocyte specification in Drosophila. Röper, K., Brown, N.H. Curr. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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