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Gene Review

hts  -  hu li tai shao

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 1B1, ADD-87, Add, Add-hts, Adducin, ...
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Disease relevance of hts

  • Furthermore, analyses of hts and Dhc64c mutants indicate that intercellular ER continuity within dividing ovarian cysts requires the fusome cytoskeletal component and suggest a possible role for the common ER in synchronizing mitotic cyst divisions [1].

High impact information on hts

  • In contrast, hu-li tai shao and Bicaudal-D transcripts were transported and localized normally in hls mutants [2].
  • During oogenesis, hts mRNA became localized at the anterior of the oocyte and was subsequently expressed in a variety of embryonic tissues [3].
  • hu-li tai shao, a gene required for ring canal formation during Drosophila oogenesis, encodes a homolog of adducin [3].
  • These studies suggested that Drosophila adducin is needed to assemble actin at specialized regions of cell-cell contact in developing egg chambers and may also function at other times during the Drosophila life cycle [3].
  • This mRNA encodes a Drosophila homolog of mammalian adducin, a membrane-cytoskeleton-associated protein that promotes the assembly of the spectrin-actin network [4].

Biological context of hts

  • Different genetic requirements for anterior RNA localization revealed by the distribution of Adducin-like transcripts during Drosophila oogenesis [4].
  • Early embryos produced by swallow or Add-hts mutant females have severe defects in the distribution of F-actin and spectrin as well as abnormalities in nuclear division, nuclear migration, and cellularization [5].
  • We present a detailed analysis of the distribution patterns of ADD-95 and ADD-87 during oogenesis and embryogenesis [6].
  • Inspection of fusome-deficient hu-li tai shao (hts) mutants indicated that KLP61F gains fusome-dependent interactions near telophase that mediate its incorporation into these structures [7].

Anatomical context of hts

  • ADD-87 protein is present throughout the oocyte cortex at stages 9 and 10 of oogenesis but is restricted to its anterior pole from stage 11 onward [5].
  • A defective embryonic cytoskeleton can be induced in either of two ways: (1) by delocalization of functional ADD from the oocyte cortex (as in swallow mutants), or (2) by reduction of ADD function while retaining its normal cortical localization during oogenesis (as in Add-hts mutants) [5].
  • We identified the adducin-like hts product and alpha-spectrin as molecular components of fusomes, discovered a related structure in germline stem cells and documented regular associations between fusomes and cystocyte centrosomes. hts mutations completely eliminated fusomes, causing abnormal cysts containing a reduced number of cells to form [8].
  • Three classes of hts mRNA (R2, N32 and N4) are synthesized in the germ line nurse cells and encode proteins with adducin-homologous amino-terminal regions but divergent carboxy-terminal domains [9].
  • Gonial cells in all hts mutants showed 2 centrosomes and mitotic spindles were bipolar [10].

Associations of hts with chemical compounds

  • The known ring canal proteins, phosphotyrosine-containing protein(s), F-actin, hts- and kelch proteins, are localized to the inner rim at a later developmental time [11].
  • The mutagenicity of MeIQx in TA1538 1A2/OR or 1B1/OR was suppressed by purpurin and alizarin but not by carminic acid [12].

Other interactions of hts

  • Cortical restriction of Add-hts mRNA and protein is required for the normal structure and function of the early embryonic F-actin/spectrin cytoskeleton [5].
  • In contrast, bicoid mRNA is still found at the anterior of embryos produced by Add-hts mothers [5].
  • We found that fusomes contain two additional membrane skeletal proteins: beta-spectrin and ankyrin. hts was shown previously to be required for cyst formation and oocyte differentiation; the role of the fusome itself, however, and the organization and function of its other components, remains unclear [13].
  • Two mutations, hu-li tai shao (hts) and kelch, disrupt normal ring canal development [14].
  • In the Drosophila ovary, membrane skeletal proteins such as the adducin-like Hts protein(s), spectrin, and ankyrin are found in the spectrosome, an organelle in germline stem cells (GSC) and their differentiated daughter cells (cystoblasts) [15].


  1. The fusome mediates intercellular endoplasmic reticulum connectivity in Drosophila ovarian cysts. Snapp, E.L., Iida, T., Frescas, D., Lippincott-Schwartz, J., Lilly, M.A. Mol. Biol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Homeless is required for RNA localization in Drosophila oogenesis and encodes a new member of the DE-H family of RNA-dependent ATPases. Gillespie, D.E., Berg, C.A. Genes Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. hu-li tai shao, a gene required for ring canal formation during Drosophila oogenesis, encodes a homolog of adducin. Yue, L., Spradling, A.C. Genes Dev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Different genetic requirements for anterior RNA localization revealed by the distribution of Adducin-like transcripts during Drosophila oogenesis. Ding, D., Parkhurst, S.M., Lipshitz, H.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Role of Adducin-like (hu-li tai shao) mRNA and protein localization in regulating cytoskeletal structure and function during Drosophila Oogenesis and early embryogenesis. Zaccai, M., Lipshitz, H.D. Dev. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Differential distributions of two adducin-like protein isoforms in the Drosophila ovary and early embryo. Zaccai, M., Lipshitz, H.D. Zygote (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. BimC motor protein KLP61F cycles between mitotic spindles and fusomes in Drosophila germ cells. Wilson, P.G. Curr. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. The Drosophila fusome, a germline-specific organelle, contains membrane skeletal proteins and functions in cyst formation. Lin, H., Yue, L., Spradling, A.C. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Different 3' untranslated regions target alternatively processed hu-li tai shao (hts) transcripts to distinct cytoplasmic locations during Drosophila oogenesis. Whittaker, K.L., Ding, D., Fisher, W.W., Lipshitz, H.D. J. Cell. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Centrosome inheritance in the male germ line of Drosophila requires hu-li tai-shao function. Wilson, P.G. Cell Biol. Int. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Mucinoprotein is a universal constituent of stable intercellular bridges in Drosophila melanogaster germ line and somatic cells. Kramerova, I.A., Kramerov, A.A. Dev. Dyn. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 1B1, 1A1 and 1A2 by antigenotoxic compounds, purpurin and alizarin. Takahashi, E., Fujita, K., Kamataki, T., Arimoto-Kobayashi, S., Okamoto, K., Negishi, T. Mutat. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. alpha-spectrin is required for germline cell division and differentiation in the Drosophila ovary. de Cuevas, M., Lee, J.K., Spradling, A.C. Development (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Morphogenesis of Drosophila ovarian ring canals. Robinson, D.N., Cant, K., Cooley, L. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Spectrosomes and fusomes anchor mitotic spindles during asymmetric germ cell divisions and facilitate the formation of a polarized microtubule array for oocyte specification in Drosophila. Deng, W., Lin, H. Dev. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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