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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Gene Review

lacA  -  galactoside O-acetyltransferase

Escherichia coli UTI89

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Disease relevance of lacA

  • The application potentials of the expression vectors carrying the lacF marker were determined by cloning of the promoterless Escherichia coli gusA reporter gene under control of the lacA promoter followed by analysis of its expression [1].
  • We have isolated mutations that appear to inactivate the gene (lacA) encoding an endogenous beta-galactosidase activity in Bacillus subtilis and in a closely linked negative regulatory element (lacR) [2].
  • In addition, three defined lactococcal promoters were inserted in pNZ272: the plasmid-derived lacA promoter, the chromosomal usp45 promoter, and a promoter from bacteriophage phi SK11G [3].
  • The greater similarity of the lacA and lacZ genes to homologs in gram-negative organisms than to those of gram-positive bacteria, in contrast to the homologies of the gal genes, suggests that the genes within the gal operon of L. lactis NCDO2054 have been recently acquired [4].
  • Tests made on the enzymes coded by the lac operons of M5al, another Klebsiella strain (V9A) and its resident Lac plasmid, and several Lac+ Enterobacteria, led to the conclusion that only Escherichia coli among the Enterobacteria contains an active lacA gene [5].

High impact information on lacA

  • Expression of both lacA and lacB was required to obtain galactose-6-phosphate isomerase activity [6].
  • In particular, the structure shows similarities both overall and at the putative active site to the recently determined structure of galactoside acetyltransferase (GAT), the lacA gene product [Wang, X.-G., Olsen, L. R., and Roderick, S. L. (2002) Structure 10, 581-588] [7].
  • Thus, the lacA-lacZ genes appear to have engaged the promoters of the gal operon in order to direct and control their expression [4].
  • Isolation and characterization of the lacA gene encoding beta-galactosidase in Bacillus subtilis and a regulator gene, lacR [8].
  • The expression vectors were equipped with the controlled and strong lacA promoter of the lactococcal lactose operon [1].

Chemical compound and disease context of lacA


Biological context of lacA

  • The results showed that transcriptional regulation of the lac operon is mediated by the interaction between the LacR repressor, the lac promoter, and sequences in the noncoding region between the lacR and lacA genes [11].

Other interactions of lacA


  1. Food-grade cloning and expression system for Lactococcus lactis. Platteeuw, C., van Alen-Boerrigter, I., van Schalkwijk, S., de Vos, W.M. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Isolation and characterization of mutations in the gene encoding an endogenous Bacillus subtilis beta-galactosidase and its regulator. Errington, J., Vogt, C.H. J. Bacteriol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Use of the Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase (gusA) gene as a reporter gene for analyzing promoters in lactic acid bacteria. Platteeuw, C., Simons, G., de Vos, W.M. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Transcriptional regulation and evolution of lactose genes in the galactose-lactose operon of Lactococcus lactis NCDO2054. Vaughan, E.E., Pridmore, R.D., Mollet, B. J. Bacteriol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Clonal analysis of the lac operons from Klebsiella M5al and the Lac plasmid (pRE2) from Klebsiella V9A. Hitchin, F.E., Reeve, E.C. Genet. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular cloning, characterization, and nucleotide sequence of the tagatose 6-phosphate pathway gene cluster of the lactose operon of Lactococcus lactis. van Rooijen, R.J., van Schalkwijk, S., de Vos, W.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. The structure and specificity of Escherichia coli maltose acetyltransferase give new insight into the LacA family of acyltransferases. Lo Leggio, L., Dal Degan, F., Poulsen, P., Andersen, S.M., Larsen, S. Biochemistry (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Isolation and characterization of the lacA gene encoding beta-galactosidase in Bacillus subtilis and a regulator gene, lacR. Daniel, R.A., Haiech, J., Denizot, F., Errington, J. J. Bacteriol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Purification of thiogalactoside transacetylase by affinity chromatography. Zabin, I., Fowler, A.V. Anal. Biochem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Polarity of Tn5 insertion mutations in Escherichia coli. Berg, D.E., Weiss, A., Crossland, L. J. Bacteriol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of the Lactococcus lactis lactose operon promoter: contribution of flanking sequences and LacR repressor to promoter activity. van Rooijen, R.J., Gasson, M.J., de Vos, W.M. J. Bacteriol. (1992) [Pubmed]
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