The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Lac Operon

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Lac Operon

  • By equilibrium competition experiments, the dissociation constant (K(RD)) of lac repressor for E. coli DNA carrying a deletion of the lac operon was measured at a variety of salt concentrations [1].
  • Fusions of the lac operon to genes induced by treatment with sublethal levels of alkylating agents have been selected from random insertions of the Mu-dl(ApRlac) phage by screening for induction of beta-galactosidase activity in the presence of methyl methanesulfonate [2].
  • The gene encoding the repressor protein of the lac operon was integrated into the vaccinia virus genome so that it was expressed constitutively, and the lac operator was inserted next to the promoter of a gene that encodes an 11-kDa virion-associated protein of unknown function [3].
  • Expression vectors have been constructed in which the mouse mammary tumor virus gag-pro frameshift region is placed upstream of the lacZ gene or the CUP1 gene so that the reporters are in the -1 frame relative to the initiation codon [4].
  • Polymerase chain reaction-amplified fragments from the bacterial lacZ gene expressing up to 282 amino acids were added either to the amino- or carboxy-terminus of the DHBV core protein [5].

High impact information on Lac Operon

  • To decipher its role in vivo we produced null mice by replacing Otx1 with the lacZ gene [6].
  • Following the establishment of micrometastases, delivery of retroviral producer cells by the same route with a vector containing the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (lacZ) gene demonstrated selective in vivo gene transfer to tumour deposits [7].
  • G207 has deletions at both gamma 34.5 (RL1) loci and a lacZ gene insertion inactivating the ICP6 gene (UL39) [8].
  • We generated Fyn-deficient mice by inserting the beta-galactosidase gene (lacZ) into the fyn gene [9].
  • We have investigated this possibility further and describe here the generation and characterization of a set of fusions of the lac genes to the promoter of the uvrA gene [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Lac Operon


Biological context of Lac Operon


Anatomical context of Lac Operon

  • By using the Cre-loxP recombination system we show that the mammary gland of whey acidic protein (WAP)-Cre/R26R mice, in which secretory epithelial cells express the lacZ gene during pregnancy, contains labeled adipocytes during involution [21].
  • Successful transfer and expression of Lps(d)/Ran cDNA in endotoxin-sensitive C3H/HeOuJ macrophages reduced TNF-alpha production upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, as compared with macrophages transduced with vectors expressing the wild-type Lps(n)/Ran cDNA, the green fluorescent protein gene, or the lacZ gene [22].
  • To examine the feasibility of this strategy, pActLacZ, an expression vector composed of the LacZ gene driven by the beta-actin promoter, complexed with lipofectin, was injected retrogradely into the common bile ducts of adult rats [23].
  • Using primary neural crest cell cultures from embryos homozygous for a Kit null allele marked by an inserted LacZ gene (Kit(W-LacZ)), we show that the onset of Mitf expression in melanoblasts does not require KIT [24].
  • To elucidate the signaling mechanism initiated by ARIA, we established stable C2C12 cell lines carrying the nuclear lacZ gene under the control of the mouse epsilon subunit promoter or chicken alpha subunit promoter [25].

Associations of Lac Operon with chemical compounds

  • This effect is not observed in cells lacking repressor or in the absence of the operator, and it is reversed by an inducer of the lac operon, namely isopropyl thiogalactoside (IPTG) [26].
  • To characterize the mode of action of angiotensin II (Ang II) in cardiac remodeling, we generated chimeric mice that are made of both homozygous Ang II receptor type 1A gene (Agtr1a) null mutant cells and Agtr1a intact cells expressing the lacZ gene (ROSA26) [27].
  • The SsrA-mediated tagging and proteolysis of LacI appears to play a role in cellular adaptation to lactose availability by supporting a rapid induction of lac operon expression [28].
  • We also demonstrated that in yeast cells the O2 protein can activate expression of a lacZ gene containing a multimer of the O2 target sequence as part of its promoter, thus confirming its role as a transcriptional activator [29].
  • The trp and lac operons are found to be stimulated at the transcriptional level by the presence of this nucleotide [30].

Gene context of Lac Operon

  • Antibodies made against a MCSP-1 lacZ gene fusion protein stain granules of CTL and react on immunoblots with two distinct granule protein bands of 29 and 35-40 kD [31].
  • If an insert is an ORF of the correct length, ompF and lacZ become realigned in frame, resulting in a LacZ+ gene that produces a tribrid protein with the translation product of the insert sandwiched between OmpF and beta-galactosidase [32].
  • We report here the sequence of the lacA gene and the region distal to it, confirming the sequence of thiogalactoside transacetylase and completing the sequence of the lac operon [20].
  • One set of cells contained a lacY mutation and the other a deletion of the entire lac operon [33].
  • We show that the MAT alpha UAS is sufficient to activate transcription from a promoterless gene fusion of the yeast CYC1 upstream region and the lacZ gene [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Lac Operon

  • Expression of the lacZ gene was confirmed by X-Gal chromagen staining and visualization by light and transmission electron microscopy [35].
  • Expression in cerebellar granule cells of RIIbeta and AKAP75 genes by microinjection of specific expression vectors, markedly stimulated cAMP-induced transcription of the lacZ gene driven by a cAMP-responsive element promoter [36].
  • To this aim, C-26 cells were transduced, via retroviral vector, with the Escherichia coli LacZ gene and mixed tumor transplantation assays were performed by injecting a mixture of G-CSF-producing beta-gal- and G-CSF-nonproducing beta-gal+ C-26 cells at different ratios [37].
  • In most fetuses expression of the LacZ gene was below the sensitivity of the X-gal staining, but expression was detected by PCR in 50%, 50% and 42% of the analyzed fetuses after adenoviral, plasmid/PEI and plasmid/liposome gene transfer, respectively [38].
  • Twenty-two rats were given an acute wound and divided into two groups to receive weekly subcutaneous injections of liposomes plus the LacZ gene (0.2 microg, vehicle), or liposomes plus the KGF cDNA (2.2 microg) and LacZ cDNA (0.2 microg) [39].


  1. The general affinity of lac repressor for E. coli DNA: implications for gene regulation in procaryotes and eucaryotes. Lin, S., Riggs, A.D. Cell (1975) [Pubmed]
  2. Induction of specific Escherichia coli genes by sublethal treatments with alkylating agents. Volkert, M.R., Nguyen, D.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Inducer-dependent conditional-lethal mutant animal viruses. Zhang, Y.F., Moss, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. A genetic screen identifies cellular factors involved in retroviral -1 frameshifting. Lee, S.I., Umen, J.G., Varmus, H.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Inhibition of viral replication by genetically engineered mutants of the duck hepatitis B virus core protein. von Weizsäcker, F., Wieland, S., Blum, H.E. Hepatology (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Epilepsy and brain abnormalities in mice lacking the Otx1 gene. Acampora, D., Mazan, S., Avantaggiato, V., Barone, P., Tuorto, F., Lallemand, Y., Brûlet, P., Simeone, A. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Gene therapy of metastatic cancer by in vivo retroviral gene targeting. Hurford, R.K., Dranoff, G., Mulligan, R.C., Tepper, R.I. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Attenuated multi-mutated herpes simplex virus-1 for the treatment of malignant gliomas. Mineta, T., Rabkin, S.D., Yazaki, T., Hunter, W.D., Martuza, R.L. Nat. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. A role for Fyn tyrosine kinase in the suckling behaviour of neonatal mice. Yagi, T., Aizawa, S., Tokunaga, T., Shigetani, Y., Takeda, N., Ikawa, Y. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of the E. coli uvrA gene is inducible. Kenyon, C.J., Walker, G.C. Nature (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. Quality and position of the three lac operators of E. coli define efficiency of repression. Oehler, S., Amouyal, M., Kolkhof, P., von Wilcken-Bergmann, B., Müller-Hill, B. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Isolation and nucleotide sequencing of lactose carrier mutants that transport maltose. Brooker, R.J., Wilson, T.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Detecting protein-DNA interactions in vivo: distribution of RNA polymerase on specific bacterial genes. Gilmour, D.S., Lis, J.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. In vitro evidence that metabolic cooperation is responsible for the bystander effect observed with HSV tk retroviral gene therapy. Bi, W.L., Parysek, L.M., Warnick, R., Stambrook, P.J. Hum. Gene Ther. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Experimental subretinal neovascularization is inhibited by adenovirus-mediated soluble VEGF/flt-1 receptor gene transfection: a role of VEGF and possible treatment for SRN in age-related macular degeneration. Honda, M., Sakamoto, T., Ishibashi, T., Inomata, H., Ueno, H. Gene Ther. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. SOS mutator DNA polymerase IV functions in adaptive mutation and not adaptive amplification. McKenzie, G.J., Lee, P.L., Lombardo, M.J., Hastings, P.J., Rosenberg, S.M. Mol. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Tumorigenesis in mice with a fusion of the leukaemia oncogene Mll and the bacterial lacZ gene. Dobson, C.L., Warren, A.J., Pannell, R., Forster, A., Rabbitts, T.H. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Construction of plasmids carrying the cI gene of bacteriophage lambda. Backman, K., Ptashne, M., Gilbert, W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1976) [Pubmed]
  19. An SmtB-like repressor from Synechocystis PCC 6803 regulates a zinc exporter. Thelwell, C., Robinson, N.J., Turner-Cavet, J.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. DNA sequence of the lactose operon: the lacA gene and the transcriptional termination region. Hediger, M.A., Johnson, D.F., Nierlich, D.P., Zabin, I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Reversible transdifferentiation of secretory epithelial cells into adipocytes in the mammary gland. Morroni, M., Giordano, A., Zingaretti, M.C., Boiani, R., De Matteis, R., Kahn, B.B., Nisoli, E., Tonello, C., Pisoschi, C., Luchetti, M.M., Marelli, M., Cinti, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Dominant negative down-regulation of endotoxin-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha production by Lps(d)/Ran. Yuan, Q., Zhao, F., Chung, S.W., Fan, P., Sultzer, B.M., Kan, Y.W., Wong, P.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Expression of the hepatitis C virus genome in rat liver after cationic liposome-mediated in vivo gene transfer. Takehara, T., Hayashi, N., Miyamoto, Y., Yamamoto, M., Mita, E., Fusamoto, H., Kamada, T. Hepatology (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Signaling and transcriptional regulation in the neural crest-derived melanocyte lineage: interactions between KIT and MITF. Hou, L., Panthier, J.J., Arnheiter, H. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Induction of acetylcholine receptor gene expression by ARIA requires activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase. Si, J., Luo, Z., Mei, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. RNA polymerase II transcription blocked by Escherichia coli lac repressor. Deuschle, U., Hipskind, R.A., Bujard, H. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Communication between myocytes and fibroblasts in cardiac remodeling in angiotensin chimeric mice. Matsusaka, T., Katori, H., Inagami, T., Fogo, A., Ichikawa, I. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. SsrA-mediated tagging and proteolysis of LacI and its role in the regulation of lac operon. Abo, T., Inada, T., Ogawa, K., Aiba, H. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Opaque-2 is a transcriptional activator that recognizes a specific target site in 22-kD zein genes. Schmidt, R.J., Ketudat, M., Aukerman, M.J., Hoschek, G. Plant Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Effects of guanosine tetraphosphate on cell-free synthesis of Escherichia coli ribosomal RNA and other gene products. Reiness, G., Yang, H.L., Zubay, G., Cashel, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1975) [Pubmed]
  31. Isolation and sequence analysis of serine protease cDNAs from mouse cytolytic T lymphocytes. Kwon, B.S., Kestler, D., Lee, E., Wakulchik, M., Young, J.D. J. Exp. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  32. Open reading frame expression vectors: a general method for antigen production in Escherichia coli using protein fusions to beta-galactosidase. Weinstock, G.M., ap Rhys, C., Berman, M.L., Hampar, B., Jackson, D., Silhavy, T.J., Weisemann, J., Zweig, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  33. Stimulation of recombination between homologous sequences on plasmid DNA and chromosomal DNA in Escherichia coli by N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene. Luisi-DeLuca, C., Porter, R.D., Taylor, W.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  34. The role of RAP1 in the regulation of the MAT alpha locus. Giesman, D., Best, L., Tatchell, K. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  35. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule to porcine interposition vein grafts. Chen, S.J., Wilson, J.M., Muller, D.W. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
  36. The type and the localization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulate transmission of cAMP signals to the nucleus in cortical and cerebellar granule cells. Paolillo, M., Feliciello, A., Porcellini, A., Garbi, C., Bifulco, M., Schinelli, S., Ventra, C., Stabile, E., Ricciardelli, G., Schettini, G., Avvedimento, E.V. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) gene transduction in murine adenocarcinoma drives neutrophil-mediated tumor inhibition in vivo. Neutrophils discriminate between G-CSF-producing and G-CSF-nonproducing tumor cells. Colombo, M.P., Lombardi, L., Stoppacciaro, A., Melani, C., Parenza, M., Bottazzi, B., Parmiani, G. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  38. Angiographically guided utero-placental gene transfer in rabbits with adenoviruses, plasmid/liposomes and plasmid/polyethyleneimine complexes. Heikkilä, A., Hiltunen, M.O., Turunen, M.P., Keski-Nisula, L., Turunen, A.M., Räsänen, H., Rissanen, T.T., Kosma, V.M., Manninen, H., Heinonen, S., Ylä-Herttuala, S. Gene Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. Non-viral liposomal keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) cDNA gene transfer improves dermal and epidermal regeneration through stimulation of epithelial and mesenchymal factors. Jeschke, M.G., Richter, G., Höfstädter, F., Herndon, D.N., Perez-Polo, J.R., Jauch, K.W. Gene Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities