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Gene Review

Gsta3  -  glutathione S-transferase alpha 3

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Gsta5, Yc2
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High impact information on Yc2


Biological context of Yc2


Anatomical context of Yc2

  • Western blotting experiments show that Yc2 is not present in hepatic cytosol from adult rats fed on normal diets but is expressed in neonatal rat livers and in the livers of adult rats that contain preneoplastic nodules that have arisen as a consequence of consuming diets contaminated with AFB1 [8].
  • Constitutive expression of Yc2 was found in the epididymis at levels comparable with that observed in the liver from EQ-treated rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[5]
  • We have previously described a rat mammary carcinoma cell line (MLNr) that is resistant to alkylating agents, and overexpresses a GST with characteristics similar to GST-Yc1 and not Yc2 [9].

Associations of Yc2 with chemical compounds

  • In contrast, the levels of subunits Yb1 and Yc2 diminished to approximate control levels within 7 days after a single dose of oltipraz [1].
  • Although evidence suggests that induction of Yc2 is responsible for the high detoxification capacity of livers from ethoxyquin-treated rats for AFB1-8,9-epoxide, resistance towards AFB1 may be multifactorial in this instance as dietary ethoxyquin also induces the Ya1, Ya2 and Yc1 subunits about 2.2-, 10.9- and 2.7-fold respectively [8].
  • Ethoxyquin-induced resistance to aflatoxin B1 in the rat is associated with the expression of a novel alpha-class glutathione S-transferase subunit, Yc2, which possesses high catalytic activity for aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide [8].
  • The presence of Alpha-class GST, including the Yc2 subunit, was examined in various rat tissues [5].
  • Administration of the antioxidants EQ, BHA or BHT, as well as PB, led to a marked increase in levels of the GST Yc2 subunit in rat liver, and this increase coincided with a substantial rise in the GST activity towards AFB1-8,9-epoxide; neither AFB1, 3-MC nor clofibrate caused induction of Yc2 or any of the GST subunits examined [5].

Other interactions of Yc2

  • As these two GSTs possess less than 70% sequence identity with the Ya1 and Ya2 subunits, both of Mr 25,500, the constitutively expressed Yc subunit of Mr 27,500 has been renamed Yc1 and the ethoxyquin-inducible GST of Mr 25,800 has been designated Yc2 [8].
  • Nonconstitutively expressed or low constitutively expressed genes (CYP1A1, CYP2B1, CYP2B2, GST Yc2, GST Yf, and UGT1*06) were not induced by exposure to the prooxidants [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Yc2

  • Immunoblotting and enzyme assays have shown that liver from adult female rats contains about 10-fold greater levels of Yc2 than is found in liver from adult male rats [3].
  • Molecular cloning has revealed that the Yc2 subunit is a class alpha GST and that the aflatoxin-metabolizing aldehyde reductase (AFAR) is a distant member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily [7].


  1. Intermittent dosing with oltipraz: relationship between chemoprevention of aflatoxin-induced tumorigenesis and induction of glutathione S-transferases. Primiano, T., Egner, P.A., Sutter, T.R., Kelloff, G.J., Roebuck, B.D., Kensler, T.W. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Resistance to aflatoxin B1 is associated with the expression of a novel aldo-keto reductase which has catalytic activity towards a cytotoxic aldehyde-containing metabolite of the toxin. Hayes, J.D., Judah, D.J., Neal, G.E. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Cloning of cDNAs from fetal rat liver encoding glutathione S-transferase Yc polypeptides. The Yc2 subunit is expressed in adult rat liver resistant to the hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1. Hayes, J.D., Nguyen, T., Judah, D.J., Petersson, D.G., Neal, G.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Mechanism of action of dietary chemoprotective agents in rat liver: induction of phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes and aflatoxin B1 metabolism. Manson, M.M., Ball, H.W., Barrett, M.C., Clark, H.L., Judah, D.J., Williamson, G., Neal, G.E. Carcinogenesis (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Regulation of aflatoxin B1-metabolizing aldehyde reductase and glutathione S-transferase by chemoprotectors. McLellan, L.I., Judah, D.J., Neal, G.E., Hayes, J.D. Biochem. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. The synergistic upregulation of phase II detoxification enzymes by glucosinolate breakdown products in cruciferous vegetables. Nho, C.W., Jeffery, E. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Regulation of glutathione S-transferases and aldehyde reductase by chemoprotectors: studies of mechanisms responsible for inducible resistance to aflatoxin B1. Hayes, J.D., McLeod, R., Ellis, E.M., Pulford, D.J., Ireland, L.S., McLellan, L.I., Judah, D.J., Manson, M.M., Neal, G.E. IARC Sci. Publ. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Ethoxyquin-induced resistance to aflatoxin B1 in the rat is associated with the expression of a novel alpha-class glutathione S-transferase subunit, Yc2, which possesses high catalytic activity for aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide. Hayes, J.D., Judah, D.J., McLellan, L.I., Kerr, L.A., Peacock, S.D., Neal, G.E. Biochem. J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification of the Yc1 glutathione S-transferase mRNA as the overexpressed species in a nitrogen mustard-resistant rat mammary carcinoma cell line. Fotouhi-Ardakani, N., Woo, A., Lewandowska, M., Schecter, R., Batist, G. J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. The effects of diquat and ciprofibrate on mRNA expression and catalytic activities of hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in rat liver. Gallagher, E.P., Buetler, T.M., Stapleton, P.L., Wang, C., Stahl, D.L., Eaton, D.L. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
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