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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Epididymis

  • One of these proteins, which contains two WAP domains, is HE4 (also known as WFDC2), originally described as an epididymis specific protein but more recently suggested to be a putative serum tumour marker for ovarian cancer [1].
  • Antibacterial properties of the sperm-binding proteins and peptides of human epididymis 2 (HE2) family; salt sensitivity, structural dependence and their interaction with outer and cytoplasmic membranes of Escherichia coli [2].
  • Glomerular filtration rate was reduced by 87%, resulting in stable uremia for up to 13 weeks with characteristic biochemical changes and reduction in weight of testes, prostate, seminal vesicles, and epididymis but not of heart, liver, spleen, or epididymal fat-pads in comparison with pair-fed and sham-operated, ad libitum-fed littermate controls [3].
  • In this study we analyzed cadmium transport into tissues with a vascular barrier, the testis, epididymis, and brain, in an attempt to characterize the mechanisms of strain resistance to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity [4].
  • Papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis is an uncommon benign lesion that may occur sporadically or as a manifestation of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease [5].

Psychiatry related information on Epididymis


High impact information on Epididymis

  • The few that survive to populate the epididymis exhibit head abnormalities similar to those described in human globozoospermia, thus Csnk2a2 may be a candidate gene for these inherited syndromes [7].
  • Twenty-eight men with congenital absence of the vas deferens underwent microsurgical aspiration of sperm from the epididymis and vasa efferentia for attempted in vitro fertilization of their wives' oocytes, with subsequent transfer of embryos [8].
  • The most motile sperm were found in the proximal epididymis, at or near the vasa efferentia [8].
  • In males, testosterone promotes differentiation of Wolffian ducts into the epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicle [9].
  • We show that oestrogen regulates the reabsorption of luminal fluid in the head of the epididymis [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Epididymis


Biological context of Epididymis

  • We cloned a 385-base pair complementary DNA and its genomic DNA named Bin1b that is exclusively expressed in the caput region of the rat epididymis and that is responsible for sperm maturation, storage, and protection [16].
  • Ros and SHP-1 are coexpressed in epididymal epithelium, and elevated phosphorylation of Ros in the epididymis of me(v) mice suggests that Ros signaling is under control of SHP-1 in vivo [17].
  • To determine whether the low concentrations of POMC-derived peptides in the male reproductive tract are synthesized locally and are not contaminants from blood, we have demonstrated POMC-like gene expression in both testis and epididymis [18].
  • The concentration of 9S binding sites in epididymis is approximately 10(-11) mol/mg of supernatant protein, which is at least 10(5) times greater than the concentration of androgen receptor [19].
  • In contrast to raf, A-raf shows a highly restricted tissue distribution of expression, with highest levels observed in epididymis, followed by intestine [20].

Anatomical context of Epididymis

  • We have shown that a vacuolar (H+)-ATPase is expressed at high levels on the luminal plasma membrane of specialized cells in the epididymis (9), which closely resemble acid-secreting kidney intercalated cells (10,11) [21].
  • The review focuses on the effects of estrogen administration or deprivation, primarily in rodents, on the hypothalamo-pituitary-testis axis, testicular function (including Leydig cell, Sertoli cell, and germ cell development and function), and in the development and function of the efferent ductules and epididymis [22].
  • The Man2a2 null spermatogenic cells fail to adhere to Sertoli cells and are prematurely released from the testis to epididymis [23].
  • Our results highlight the essential role of the epididymis in male fertility and demonstrate a highly specific function of the c-ros receptor tyrosine kinase during development of distinct epithelial cells [24].
  • Here we show that Bin1b, a rat epididymis-specific beta-defensin with antimicrobial activity, can bind to the sperm head in different regions of the epididymis with varied binding patterns [25].

Associations of Epididymis with chemical compounds

  • Amino-terminal amino acid microsequencing of CE9 immunoaffinity purified from epididymis suggested that the cleavage occurred on the carboxy-terminal side of arginine-74 in the primary sequence of CE9, resulting in the loss of approximately 40% of the amino acids in the extra-cellular domain of this transmembrane glycoprotein [26].
  • Neurohypophysial hormones stimulate the motility of tunica albuginea, epididymis, and vas deferens acting through oxytocin (OT) and V1 vasopressin receptors [27].
  • However, in the sperm obtained from either the caput or the cauda of epididymis, the adenylate cyclase is membrane-associated and found in particulate fractions of sperm homogenates [28].
  • Thin-layer chromatography demonstrated an accumulation of disaccharide in epididymis and brain [29].
  • Monobromobimane labeling and protein-free thiol titration revealed significantly less extensive oxidation in the cauda epididymis when compared to that in the wild type [30].

Gene context of Epididymis


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Epididymis


  1. The putative ovarian tumour marker gene HE4 (WFDC2), is expressed in normal tissues and undergoes complex alternative splicing to yield multiple protein isoforms. Bingle, L., Singleton, V., Bingle, C.D. Oncogene (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Antibacterial properties of the sperm-binding proteins and peptides of human epididymis 2 (HE2) family; salt sensitivity, structural dependence and their interaction with outer and cytoplasmic membranes of Escherichia coli. Yenugu, S., Hamil, K.G., Birse, C.E., Ruben, S.M., French, F.S., Hall, S.H. Biochem. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Testicular function in experimental uremia. Handelsman, D.J., Spaliviero, J.A., Turtle, J.R. Endocrinology (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Differences in cadmium transport to the testis, epididymis, and brain in cadmium-sensitive and -resistant murine strains 129/J and A/J. King, L.M., Banks, W.A., George, W.J. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Somatic von Hippel-Lindau mutation in clear cell papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis. Gilcrease, M.Z., Schmidt, L., Zbar, B., Truong, L., Rutledge, M., Wheeler, T.M. Hum. Pathol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Studies on the physiology and biochemistry of mammalian epididymis: effect of flutamide, a nonsteroidal antiandrogen, on the epididymis of the rat. Dhar, J.D., Setty, B.S. Fertil. Steril. (1976) [Pubmed]
  7. Globozoospermia in mice lacking the casein kinase II alpha' catalytic subunit. Xu, X., Toselli, P.A., Russell, L.D., Seldin, D.C. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Congenital absence of the vas deferens. The fertilizing capacity of human epididymal sperm. Silber, S.J., Ord, T., Balmaceda, J., Patrizio, P., Asch, R.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Sexually dimorphic development of the mammalian reproductive tract requires Wnt-7a. Parr, B.A., McMahon, A.P. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. A role for oestrogens in the male reproductive system. Hess, R.A., Bunick, D., Lee, K.H., Bahr, J., Taylor, J.A., Korach, K.S., Lubahn, D.B. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Thyroid hormone modulation of thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) and TRH-Gly levels in the male rat reproductive system. Pekary, A.E., Bhasin, S., Smith, V., Sugawara, M., Swerdloff, R.S., Hershman, J.M. J. Endocrinol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. The effect of methoxychlor on the epididymal antioxidant system of adult rats. Latchoumycandane, C., Chitra, K.C., Mathur, P.P. Reprod. Toxicol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of testosterone on diethylstilbestrol toxicity and comparison to a recovery study in the rat epididymis and vas deferens. Rao, M.V., Mehta, A.R., Sharma, A.K., Patil, J.S., George, R.K. Reprod. Toxicol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Protective effect of vitamin E against mercuric chloride reproductive toxicity in male mice. Rao, M.V., Sharma, P.S. Reprod. Toxicol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of chronic fluoride toxicity on the morphology of ductus epididymis and the maturation of spermatozoa of rabbit. Kumar, A., Susheela, A.K. International journal of experimental pathology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. An antimicrobial peptide gene found in the male reproductive system of rats. Li, P., Chan, H.C., He, B., So, S.C., Chung, Y.W., Shang, Q., Zhang, Y.D., Zhang, Y.L. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Negative regulation of Ros receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. An epithelial function of the SH2 domain protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. Keilhack, H., Müller, M., Böhmer, S.A., Frank, C., Weidner, K.M., Birchmeier, W., Ligensa, T., Berndt, A., Kosmehl, H., Günther, B., Müller, T., Birchmeier, C., Böhmer, F.D. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Expression of pro-opiomelanocortin-like gene in the testis and epididymis. Chen, C.L., Mather, J.P., Morris, P.L., Bardin, C.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. 9S binding protein for androgens and progesterone. Wilson, E.M., Lea, O.A., French, F.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  20. Characterization of murine A-raf, a new oncogene related to the v-raf oncogene. Huleihel, M., Goldsborough, M., Cleveland, J., Gunnell, M., Bonner, T., Rapp, U.R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Acidification of the male reproductive tract by a proton pumping (H+)-ATPase. Breton, S., Smith, P.J., Lui, B., Brown, D. Nat. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Estrogen and spermatogenesis. O'Donnell, L., Robertson, K.M., Jones, M.E., Simpson, E.R. Endocr. Rev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Germ cell survival through carbohydrate-mediated interaction with Sertoli cells. Akama, T.O., Nakagawa, H., Sugihara, K., Narisawa, S., Ohyama, C., Nishimura, S., O'Brien, D.A., Moremen, K.W., Millan, J.L., Fukuda, M.N. Science (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. The c-ros tyrosine kinase receptor controls regionalization and differentiation of epithelial cells in the epididymis. Sonnenberg-Riethmacher, E., Walter, B., Riethmacher, D., Gödecke, S., Birchmeier, C. Genes Dev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. An epididymis-specific beta-defensin is important for the initiation of sperm maturation. Zhou, C.X., Zhang, Y.L., Xiao, L., Zheng, M., Leung, K.M., Chan, M.Y., Lo, P.S., Tsang, L.L., Wong, H.Y., Ho, L.S., Chung, Y.W., Chan, H.C. Nat. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Endoproteolytic cleavage in the extracellular domain of the integral plasma membrane protein CE9 precedes its redistribution from the posterior to the anterior tail of the rat spermatozoon during epididymal maturation. Petruszak, J.A., Nehme, C.L., Bartles, J.R. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Identification and characterization of a vasopressin isoreceptor in porcine seminal vesicles. Maggi, M., Kassis, S., Malozowski, S., Guardabasso, V., Rodbard, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  28. Development of a Mn-2+-sensitive, "soluble" adenylate cyclase in rat testis. Braun, T., Dods, R.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1975) [Pubmed]
  29. Beta-mannosidosis mice: a model for the human lysosomal storage disease. Zhu, M., Lovell, K.L., Patterson, J.S., Saunders, T.L., Hughes, E.D., Friderici, K.H. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. The nuclear form of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase is a protein thiol peroxidase contributing to sperm chromatin stability. Conrad, M., Moreno, S.G., Sinowatz, F., Ursini, F., Kölle, S., Roveri, A., Brielmeier, M., Wurst, W., Maiorino, M., Bornkamm, G.W. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Protein C inhibitor in human body fluids. Seminal plasma is rich in inhibitor antigen deriving from cells throughout the male reproductive system. Laurell, M., Christensson, A., Abrahamsson, P.A., Stenflo, J., Lilja, H. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Identification of a second corticotropin-releasing factor receptor gene and characterization of a cDNA expressed in heart. Perrin, M., Donaldson, C., Chen, R., Blount, A., Berggren, T., Bilezikjian, L., Sawchenko, P., Vale, W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. WNK4 regulates apical and basolateral Cl- flux in extrarenal epithelia. Kahle, K.T., Gimenez, I., Hassan, H., Wilson, F.H., Wong, R.D., Forbush, B., Aronson, P.S., Lifton, R.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Deficiency of reproductive tract alpha(1,2)fucosylated glycans and normal fertility in mice with targeted deletions of the FUT1 or FUT2 alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase locus. Domino, S.E., Zhang, L., Gillespie, P.J., Saunders, T.L., Lowe, J.B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Developmental expression of latent transforming growth factor beta binding protein 2 and its requirement early in mouse development. Shipley, J.M., Mecham, R.P., Maus, E., Bonadio, J., Rosenbloom, J., McCarthy, R.T., Baumann, M.L., Frankfater, C., Segade, F., Shapiro, S.D. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Isolation, culture, and immunocytochemical characterization of epididymal epithelial cells from pubertal and adult rats. Kierszenbaum, A.L., Lea, O., Petrusz, P., French, F.S., Tres, L.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  37. Cloning of the cDNA and gene encoding mouse lysosomal sialidase and correction of sialidase deficiency in human sialidosis and mouse SM/J fibroblasts. Igdoura, S.A., Gafuik, C., Mertineit, C., Saberi, F., Pshezhetsky, A.V., Potier, M., Trasler, J.M., Gravel, R.A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. Mechanisms of reduced fertility in Hoxa-10 mutant mice: uterine homeosis and loss of maternal Hoxa-10 expression. Benson, G.V., Lim, H., Paria, B.C., Satokata, I., Dey, S.K., Maas, R.L. Development (1996) [Pubmed]
  39. Inhibition of a transplantable pancreatic carcinoma by castration and estradiol administration in rats. Sumi, C., Brinck-Johnsen, T., Longnecker, D.S. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  40. Novel androgen-dependent promoters direct expression of the C4b-binding protein alpha-chain gene in epididymis. Nonaka, M.I., Wang, G., Mori, T., Okada, H., Nonaka, M. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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