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Chemical Compound Review

Dibunol     4-methyl-2,6-ditert-butyl- phenol

Synonyms: Impruvol, Ionol, BHT, Butylhydroxytoluene, Butylated hydroxytoluene, ...
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Disease relevance of Butylated hydroxytoluene


Psychiatry related information on Butylated hydroxytoluene

  • It seems likely that the neoplastic effects observed at very high dietary levels of BHA and BHT occur only after effective biological defense mechanisms are overloaded [6].

High impact information on Butylated hydroxytoluene

  • LDL modification and conversion into a high-uptake form occurred in the absence of free metal ions, required NO2-, occurred at physiological levels of Cl-, and was inhibited by heme poisons, catalase, and BHT [7].
  • All the above changes in the microcirculation were markedly reduced by the addition of BHT treatment [8].
  • T lymphocytes were present in the intima of cholesterol-fed rabbits, whereas no such cells could be identified in the BHT-fed animals [9].
  • There was also a lower number of macrophages in the BHT-treated group [9].
  • The effect of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the accumulation of intimal smooth muscle cells (SMC) and development of intimal thickening after balloon catheter injury of the aorta were studied in rabbits with dietary-induced hyperlipidemia [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Butylated hydroxytoluene


Biological context of Butylated hydroxytoluene


Anatomical context of Butylated hydroxytoluene

  • Changes in the labeling index of the forestomach epithelium paralleled the histologic changes, except in hamsters fed the BHT diet in which no significant increase in the labeling index was observed throughout the experiment [4].
  • Although the pancreas is refractory to the enzyme inductive effects of these antioxidants, morphometric analysis of foci demonstrated chemoprevention by BHA and BHT of azaserine-induced foci [18].
  • There were significantly lower levels of autooxidation products of cholesterol (7-oxocholesterol, cholesterol-5,6-epoxide, and 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol) in the aortas of BHT-treated rabbits, P < 0.001 [9].
  • Preincubation of CHO cells with the antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole or butylated hydroxytoluene blocked the toxin A-induced increase in oxygen radicals and diminished cell rounding [19].
  • The effect of regional administration of BHT 933 (a selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist) was studied in eight subjects with angiographically normal coronary arteries [20].

Associations of Butylated hydroxytoluene with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Butylated hydroxytoluene


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Butylated hydroxytoluene


  1. Toxicity of butylated hydroxytoluene. Shlian, D.M., Goldstone, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Butylated hydroxytoluene protects chickens exposed to Newcastle disease virus. Brugh, M. Science (1977) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, and NaCl on gastric carcinogenesis initiated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in F344 rats. Shirai, T., Fukushima, S., Ohshima, M., Masuda, A., Ito, N. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Histologic and autoradiographic studies on the forestomach of hamsters treated with 2-tert-butylated hydroxyanisole, 3-tert-butylated hydroxyanisole, crude butylated hydroxyanisole, or butylated hydroxytoluene. Hirose, M., Masuda, A., Kurata, Y., Ikawa, E., Mera, Y., Ito, N. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. Pharmacologic and genetic studies on the modulatory effects of butylated hydroxytoluene on mouse lung adenoma formation. Malkinson, A.M., Beer, D.S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Phenolic antioxidants: Health Protection Branch studies on butylated hydroxyanisole. Iverson, F. Cancer Lett. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Myeloperoxidase-generated reactive nitrogen species convert LDL into an atherogenic form in vitro. Podrez, E.A., Schmitt, D., Hoff, H.F., Hazen, S.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. The antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene prevents early cholesterol-induced microcirculatory changes in rabbits. Xiu, R.J., Freyschuss, A., Ying, X., Berglund, L., Henriksson, P., Björkhem, I. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Antioxidant treatment inhibits the development of intimal thickening after balloon injury of the aorta in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Freyschuss, A., Stiko-Rahm, A., Swedenborg, J., Henriksson, P., Björkhem, I., Berglund, L., Nilsson, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Combination chemoprevention of rat mammary carcinogenesis by indomethacin and butylated hydroxytoluene. McCormick, D.L., Wilson, A.M. Cancer Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Anti-oxidant treatment prevents the development of peripheral nerve dysfunction in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Cameron, N.E., Cotter, M.A., Maxfield, E.K. Diabetologia (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Oxygen radicals in lung pathology. Doelman, C.J., Bast, A. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of several agents on UVB- and UVA plus systemic fluoroquinolone-induced erythema of guinea pig skin evaluated by reflectance colorimetry. Akter, U., Niwa, M., Nose, T., Kaida, T., Matsuno, H., Kozawa, O., Uematsu, T. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Enhancement of urethan tumorigenesis in mouse lung by butylated hydroxytoluene. Witschi, H., Williamson, D., Lock, S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Enhancement of lung tumor formation in mice by dietary butylated hydroxytoluene: dose-time relationships and cell kinetics. Witschi, H.R., Morse, C.C. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein mediates coronary microvascular control during autoregulation and ischemia in canine heart. Komaru, T., Wang, Y., Akai, K., Sato, K., Sekiguchi, N., Sugimura, A., Kumagai, T., Kanatsuka, H., Shirato, K. Circ. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Reduced glutathione depletion causes necrosis and sensitization to tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced apoptosis in cultured mouse hepatocytes. Nagai, H., Matsumaru, K., Feng, G., Kaplowitz, N. Hepatology (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Modulation of azaserine-induced pancreatic foci by phenolic antioxidants in rats. Roebuck, B.D., MacMillan, D.L., Bush, D.M., Kensler, T.W. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Clostridium difficile toxin A causes early damage to mitochondria in cultured cells. He, D., Hagen, S.J., Pothoulakis, C., Chen, M., Medina, N.D., Warny, M., LaMont, J.T. Gastroenterology (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Role of alpha 2-adrenoceptors in normal and atherosclerotic human coronary circulation. Indolfi, C., Piscione, F., Villari, B., Russolillo, E., Rendina, V., Golino, P., Condorelli, M., Chiariello, M. Circulation (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Selective sex-related modification of diethylnitrosamine-induced carcinogenesis in BALB/c mice by concomitant administration of butylated hydroxytoluene. Clapp, N.K., Tyndall, R.L., Satterfield, L.C., Klima, W.C., Bowles, N.D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
  22. Free radical-derived quinone methide mediates skin tumor promotion by butylated hydroxytoluene hydroperoxide: expanded role for electrophiles in multistage carcinogenesis. Guyton, K.Z., Bhan, P., Kuppusamy, P., Zweier, J.L., Trush, M.A., Kensler, T.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Oxygen-mediated heterogeneity of apo-low-density lipoprotein. Schuh, J., Fairclough, G.F., Haschemeyer, R.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  24. Regulation of nitric oxide production in human coronary microvessels and the contribution of local kinin formation. Kichuk, M.R., Seyedi, N., Zhang, X., Marboe, C.C., Michler, R.E., Addonizio, L.J., Kaley, G., Nasjletti, A., Hintze, T.H. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Genetic ablation of inducible nitric oxide synthase decreases mouse lung tumorigenesis. Kisley, L.R., Barrett, B.S., Bauer, A.K., Dwyer-Nield, L.D., Barthel, B., Meyer, A.M., Thompson, D.C., Malkinson, A.M. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Enhancement of tumor invasion depends on transdifferentiation of skin fibroblasts mediated by reactive oxygen species. Cat, B., Stuhlmann, D., Steinbrenner, H., Alili, L., Holtkötter, O., Sies, H., Brenneisen, P. J. Cell. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. The effect of butylated hydroxytoluene on the growth of enzyme-altered foci in male Fischer 344 rat liver tissue. Lok, E., Mehta, R., Jee, P., Laver, G., Nera, E.A., McMullen, E., Clayson, D.B. Carcinogenesis (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Beta-catenin in the fibroproliferative response to acute lung injury. Douglas, I.S., Diaz del Valle, F., Winn, R.A., Voelkel, N.F. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Inhibition of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis by concomitant or postcarcinogen antioxidant exposure. McCormick, D.L., Major, N., Moon, R.C. Cancer Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  30. Heart cross-reactive antigens of mutans streptococci share epitopes with group A streptococci and myosin. Ayakawa, G.Y., Bleiweis, A.S., Crowley, P.J., Cunningham, M.W. J. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
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