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Gene Review

GHRL  -  ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide

Macaca mulatta

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Disease relevance of GHRL


High impact information on GHRL

  • These similarities between the rhesus monkey and human ghrelin genes and plasma ghrelin responses suggest a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms regulating ghrelin secretion and gene expression in different tissues in normal and disease states using this model system [1].
  • Although a significant inverse correlation between fasting plasma ghrelin and fasting insulin levels were found, iv glucose and insulin administration did not significantly alter ghrelin levels [1].
  • These studies demonstrate that ghrelin levels are influenced by age-related factors and adiposity in the rhesus monkey [1].
  • Ghrelin stimulates release of GH from the pituitary, stimulates appetite, and may influence metabolic processes in other tissues expressing the GH secretagogue receptor [1].
  • Ghrelin expression was highest in the stomach with lower levels found in muscle and duodenum [1].

Biological context of GHRL


Associations of GHRL with chemical compounds

  • By means of double immunofluorescence applied to sections of the monkey GIT, we demonstrated that, in the stomach, PrP(c) immunostaining occurs in subsets of histamine, somatostatin (Som), ghrelin (Ghr), gastrin (G), and serotonin (5HT) cells [3].

Other interactions of GHRL


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GHRL

  • Fasting plasma ghrelin concentrations were also inversely correlated with body mass index and exhibited a nonlinear association with age with increased levels in younger and older monkeys and lower levels in middle-aged monkeys [1].


  1. Characterization of the rhesus monkey ghrelin gene and factors influencing ghrelin gene expression and fasting plasma levels. Angeloni, S.V., Glynn, N., Ambrosini, G., Garant, M.J., Higley, J.D., Suomi, S., Hansen, B.C. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Is microvascular flow rate related to ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin levels? Tigno, X.T., Selaru, I.K., Angeloni, S.V., Hansen, B.C. Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Characterization of PrPc-Immunoreactive Cells in Monkey (Macaca fascicularis) Gastrointestinal Tract. Marcos, Z., Bodegas, M.E., Sesma, M.P., Guembe, L. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
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