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Gene Review

Ghrl  -  ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Appetite-regulating hormone, Growth hormone secretagogue, Growth hormone-releasing peptide, Motilin-related peptide
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Disease relevance of Ghrl


High impact information on Ghrl


Chemical compound and disease context of Ghrl


Biological context of Ghrl


Anatomical context of Ghrl


Associations of Ghrl with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Ghrl

  • Dense nuclear Fos staining was induced throughout the ventral arcuate nucleus of rats injected intracerebroventricularly with low doses of GHRP-6 but not in rats injected with the endogenous GH-releasing hormone GHRH or in vehicle-treated controls [22].

Other interactions of Ghrl


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ghrl


  1. A 6-day intracerebroventricular infusion of the growth hormone-releasing peptide KP-102 stimulates food intake in both non-stressed and intermittently-stressed rats. Kuriyama, H., Hotta, M., Wakabayashi, I., Shibasaki, T. Neurosci. Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification and characterization of a new growth hormone-releasing peptide receptor in the heart. Bodart, V., Bouchard, J.F., McNicoll, N., Escher, E., Carrière, P., Ghigo, E., Sejlitz, T., Sirois, M.G., Lamontagne, D., Ong, H. Circ. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Ghrelin inhibits proinflammatory responses and nuclear factor-kappaB activation in human endothelial cells. Li, W.G., Gavrila, D., Liu, X., Wang, L., Gunnlaugsson, S., Stoll, L.L., McCormick, M.L., Sigmund, C.D., Tang, C., Weintraub, N.L. Circulation (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. The growth hormone secretagogue hexarelin improves cardiac function in rats after experimental myocardial infarction. Tivesten, A., Bollano, E., Caidahl, K., Kujacic, V., Sun, X.Y., Hedner, T., Hjalmarson, A., Bengtsson, B.A., Isgaard, J. Endocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Growth hormone-releasing peptide hexarelin reduces neonatal brain injury and alters Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3beta phosphorylation. Brywe, K.G., Leverin, A.L., Gustavsson, M., Mallard, C., Granata, R., Destefanis, S., Volante, M., Hagberg, H., Ghigo, E., Isgaard, J. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. A nonpeptidyl growth hormone secretagogue. Smith, R.G., Cheng, K., Schoen, W.R., Pong, S.S., Hickey, G., Jacks, T., Butler, B., Chan, W.W., Chaung, L.Y., Judith, F. Science (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Ghrelin is present in pancreatic alpha-cells of humans and rats and stimulates insulin secretion. Date, Y., Nakazato, M., Hashiguchi, S., Dezaki, K., Mondal, M.S., Hosoda, H., Kojima, M., Kangawa, K., Arima, T., Matsuo, H., Yada, T., Matsukura, S. Diabetes (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Ghrelin, an endogenous growth hormone secretagogue, is a novel orexigenic peptide that antagonizes leptin action through the activation of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y/Y1 receptor pathway. Shintani, M., Ogawa, Y., Ebihara, K., Aizawa-Abe, M., Miyanaga, F., Takaya, K., Hayashi, T., Inoue, G., Hosoda, K., Kojima, M., Kangawa, K., Nakao, K. Diabetes (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Ghrelin causes hyperphagia and obesity in rats. Wren, A.M., Small, C.J., Abbott, C.R., Dhillo, W.S., Seal, L.J., Cohen, M.A., Batterham, R.L., Taheri, S., Stanley, S.A., Ghatei, M.A., Bloom, S.R. Diabetes (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Hypotension induced by growth-hormone-releasing peptide is mediated by mast cell serotonin release in the rat. Macia, R.A., Gabel, R.A., Reginato, M.J., Matthews, W.D. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Chicken ghrelin and growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 inhibit food intake of neonatal chicks. Saito, E.S., Kaiya, H., Takagi, T., Yamasaki, I., Denbow, D.M., Kangawa, K., Furuse, M. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. GHRP-6-induced changes in electrical activity of single cells in the arcuate, ventromedial and periventricular nucleus neurones [correction of nuclei] of a hypothalamic slice preparation in vitro. Hewson, A.K., Viltart, O., McKenzie, D.N., Dyball, R.E., Dickson, S.L. J. Neuroendocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Central effect of ghrelin, an endogenous growth hormone secretagogue, on hypothalamic peptide gene expression. Kamegai, J., Tamura, H., Shimizu, T., Ishii, S., Sugihara, H., Wakabayashi, I. Endocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of substance P/bombesin antagonists on the release of growth hormone by GHRP and GHRH. Bitar, K.G., Bowers, C.Y., Coy, D.H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition exaggerates the hypotensive response to ghrelin: role of calcium-activated potassium channels. Shinde, U.A., Desai, K.M., Yu, C., Gopalakrishnan, V. J. Hypertens. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. The hypothalamic mechanisms of the hypophysiotropic action of ghrelin. Wren, A.M., Small, C.J., Fribbens, C.V., Neary, N.M., Ward, H.L., Seal, L.J., Ghatei, M.A., Bloom, S.R. Neuroendocrinology (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. The endogenous growth hormone secretagogue (ghrelin) is synthesized and secreted by chondrocytes. Caminos, J.E., Gualillo, O., Lago, F., Otero, M., Blanco, M., Gallego, R., Garcia-Caballero, T., Goldring, M.B., Casanueva, F.F., Gomez-Reino, J.J., Dieguez, C. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Influence of chronic treatment with the growth hormone secretagogue Ipamorelin, in young female rats: somatotroph response in vitro. Jiménez-Reina, L., Cañete, R., de la Torre, M.J., Bernal, G. Histol. Histopathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Mechanisms of action of a second generation growth hormone-releasing peptide (Ala-His-D-beta Nal-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2) in rat anterior pituitary cells. Akman, M.S., Girard, M., O'Brien, L.F., Ho, A.K., Chik, C.L. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of repeated doses and continuous infusions of the growth hormone-releasing peptide hexarelin in conscious male rats. Conley, L.K., Gaillard, R.C., Giustina, A., Brogan, R.S., Wehrenberg, W.B. J. Endocrinol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Preclinical pharmacology of CP-424,391, an orally active pyrazolinone-piperidine [correction of pyrazolidinone-piperidine] growth hormone secretagogue. Pan, L.C., Carpino, P.A., Lefker, B.A., Ragan, J.A., Toler, S.M., Pettersen, J.C., Nettleton, D.O., Ng, O., Pirie, C.M., Chidsey-Frink, K., Lu, B., Nickerson, D.F., Tess, D.A., Mullins, M.A., MacLean, D.B., DaSilva-Jardine, P.A., Thompson, D.D. Endocrine (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Central actions of peptide and non-peptide growth hormone secretagogues in the rat. Dickson, S.L., Leng, G., Dyball, R.E., Smith, R.G. Neuroendocrinology (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Antiproliferative and GH-inhibitory activity of chimeric peptides consisting of GHRP-6 and somatostatin. Dasgupta, P., Singh, A.T., Mukherjee, R. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Deterministic construct of amplifying actions of ghrelin on pulsatile growth hormone secretion. Farhy, L.S., Veldhuis, J.D. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Growth hormone and growth hormone-related mRNA in uremic rats: effect of a growth hormone secretagogue. Krieg, R.J., Chan, W., Lin, K.C., Kuemmerle, N.B., Veldhuis, J.D., Chan, J.C. Pediatr. Nephrol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of long-term administration of Hexarelin on the somatotrophic axis in aged rats. Cattaneo, L., Luoni, M., Settembrini, B., Müller, E.E., Cocchi, D. Pharmacol. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Attenuation of the growth hormone secretagogue induction of Fos protein in the rat arcuate nucleus by central somatostatin action. Dickson, S.L., Viltart, O., Bailey, A.R., Leng, G. Neuroendocrinology (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Molecular cloning and gene expression of growth hormone-releasing peptide receptor in rat tissues. Yokote, R., Sato, M., Matsubara, S., Ohye, H., Niimi, M., Murao, K., Takahara, J. Peptides (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. The effect of a drug-delivery system consisting of soybean phosphatidyl choline and medium-chain monoacylglycerol on the intestinal permeability of hexarelin in the rat. Fagerholm, U., Sjöström, B., Sroka-Markovic, J., Wijk, A., Svensson, M., Lennernäs, H. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Do growth hormone-releasing peptides act as ghrelin secretagogues? Ahnfelt-Rønne, I., Nowak, J., Olsen, U.B. Endocrine (2001) [Pubmed]
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