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Gene Review

Ghrl  -  ghrelin

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 2210006E23Rik, Appetite-regulating hormone, Ghr, Growth hormone secretagogue, Growth hormone-releasing peptide, ...
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Disease relevance of Ghrl


Psychiatry related information on Ghrl


High impact information on Ghrl

  • Rat serum ghrelin concentrations were increased by fasting and were reduced by re-feeding or oral glucose administration, but not by water ingestion [10].
  • Intracerebroventricular administration of ghrelin generated a dose-dependent increase in food intake and body weight [10].
  • Apart from potential paracrine effects, ghrelin may thus offer an endocrine link between stomach, hypothalamus and pituitary, suggesting an involvement in regulation of energy balance [10].
  • Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents [10].
  • Here we show that peripheral daily administration of ghrelin caused weight gain by reducing fat utilization in mice and rats [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ghrl


Biological context of Ghrl


Anatomical context of Ghrl


Associations of Ghrl with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Ghrl


Regulatory relationships of Ghrl


Other interactions of Ghrl

  • Overnight (12 h) fasting resulted in a significant suppression of circulating glucose, insulin, IGF-I, and leptin levels and an increase in corticosterone, free fatty acids, and n-octanoyl ghrelin levels, and these directional changes were maintained at the 24- and 48-h time points [23].
  • Our results suggest that enhanced NPY and reduced alpha-MSH expression are secondary to the release of ghrelin, which should be considered the underlying trigger of hyperphagia associated with uncontrolled diabetes [5].
  • We further demonstrate that ablation of ghrelin reduces expression of Ucp2 mRNA in the pancreas, which contributes toward enhanced glucose-induced insulin secretion [6].
  • We have identified several ghrelin-induced genes by PCR-select subtraction methods, among which is a beta-cell autoantigen for type 1 diabetes, IA-2beta [3].
  • However, the expression of IA-2, another structurally related beta-cell autoantigen, was not induced by ghrelin [3].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ghrl


  1. Is ghrelin a signal for the development of metabolic systems? Grove, K.L., Cowley, M.A. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Mice lacking ghrelin receptors resist the development of diet-induced obesity. Zigman, J.M., Nakano, Y., Coppari, R., Balthasar, N., Marcus, J.N., Lee, C.E., Jones, J.E., Deysher, A.E., Waxman, A.R., White, R.D., Williams, T.D., Lachey, J.L., Seeley, R.J., Lowell, B.B., Elmquist, J.K. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. IA-2beta, but not IA-2, is induced by ghrelin and inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Doi, A., Shono, T., Nishi, M., Furuta, H., Sasaki, H., Nanjo, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Estradiol-dependent decrease in the orexigenic potency of ghrelin in female rats. Clegg, D.J., Brown, L.M., Zigman, J.M., Kemp, C.J., Strader, A.D., Benoit, S.C., Woods, S.C., Mangiaracina, M., Geary, N. Diabetes (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Role of endogenous ghrelin in the hyperphagia of mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Dong, J., Peeters, T.L., De Smet, B., Moechars, D., Delporte, C., Vanden Berghe, P., Coulie, B., Tang, M., Depoortere, I. Endocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Ablation of ghrelin improves the diabetic but not obese phenotype of ob/ob mice. Sun, Y., Asnicar, M., Saha, P.K., Chan, L., Smith, R.G. Cell metabolism. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Metabolic signals modulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation during maternal separation of the neonatal mouse. Schmidt, M.V., Levine, S., Alam, S., Harbich, D., Sterlemann, V., Ganea, K., de Kloet, E.R., Holsboer, F., M??ller, M.B. J. Neuroendocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Ghrelin alleviates cancer chemotherapy-associated dyspepsia in rodents. Liu, Y.L., Malik, N.M., Sanger, G.J., Andrews, P.L. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Endocrine controls of eating: CCK, leptin, and ghrelin. Geary, N. Physiol. Behav. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents. Tschöp, M., Smiley, D.L., Heiman, M.L. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Ghrelin differentially affects hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in mice. Heijboer, A.C., van den Hoek, A.M., Parlevliet, E.T., Havekes, L.M., Romijn, J.A., Pijl, H., Corssmit, E.P. Diabetologia (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Ghrelin regulates adiposity in white adipose tissue and UCP1 mRNA expression in brown adipose tissue in mice. Tsubone, T., Masaki, T., Katsuragi, I., Tanaka, K., Kakuma, T., Yoshimatsu, H. Regul. Pept. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Nocturnal ghrelin, ACTH, GH and cortisol secretion after sleep deprivation in humans. Schüssler, P., Uhr, M., Ising, M., Weikel, J.C., Schmid, D.A., Held, K., Mathias, S., Steiger, A. Psychoneuroendocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Antagonism of ghrelin receptor reduces food intake and body weight gain in mice. Asakawa, A., Inui, A., Kaga, T., Katsuura, G., Fujimiya, M., Fujino, M.A., Kasuga, M. Gut (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Ghrelin stimulation of growth hormone release and appetite is mediated through the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Sun, Y., Wang, P., Zheng, H., Smith, R.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of ghrelin on anorexia in tumor-bearing mice with eicosanoid-related cachexia. Wang, W., Andersson, M., Iresjö, B.M., Lönnroth, C., Lundholm, K. Int. J. Oncol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Upregulation of Ghrelin expression in the stomach upon fasting, insulin-induced hypoglycemia, and leptin administration. Toshinai, K., Mondal, M.S., Nakazato, M., Date, Y., Murakami, N., Kojima, M., Kangawa, K., Matsukura, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Ghrelin amplifies dopamine signaling by cross talk involving formation of growth hormone secretagogue receptor/dopamine receptor subtype 1 heterodimers. Jiang, H., Betancourt, L., Smith, R.G. Mol. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Synaptic plasticity in energy balance regulation. Horvath, T.L. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of des-acyl ghrelin on adiposity and glucose metabolism. Zhang, W., Chai, B., Li, J.Y., Wang, H., Mulholland, M.W. Endocrinology (2008) [Pubmed]
  21. Reduced ghrelin, islet amyloid polypeptide, and peptide YY expression in the stomach of gastrin-cholecystokinin knockout mice. Friis-Hansen, L., Wierup, N., Rehfeld, J.F., Sundler, F. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Ghrelin modulates the activity and synaptic input organization of midbrain dopamine neurons while promoting appetite. Abizaid, A., Liu, Z.W., Andrews, Z.B., Shanabrough, M., Borok, E., Elsworth, J.D., Roth, R.H., Sleeman, M.W., Picciotto, M.R., Tschöp, M.H., Gao, X.B., Horvath, T.L. J. Clin. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Severity of the catabolic condition differentially modulates hypothalamic expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone in the fasted mouse: potential role of neuropeptide y and corticotropin-releasing hormone. Luque, R.M., Park, S., Kineman, R.D. Endocrinology (2007) [Pubmed]
  24. Blockade of pancreatic islet-derived ghrelin enhances insulin secretion to prevent high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance. Dezaki, K., Sone, H., Koizumi, M., Nakata, M., Kakei, M., Nagai, H., Hosoda, H., Kangawa, K., Yada, T. Diabetes (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Ghrelin improves renal function in mice with ischemic acute renal failure. Takeda, R., Nishimatsu, H., Suzuki, E., Satonaka, H., Nagata, D., Oba, S., Sata, M., Takahashi, M., Yamamoto, Y., Terauchi, Y., Kadowaki, T., Kangawa, K., Kitamura, T., Nagai, R., Hirata, Y. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Leptin downregulates ghrelin levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Tsubone, T., Masaki, T., Katsuragi, I., Tanaka, K., Kakuma, T., Yoshimatsu, H. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Ghrelin is an appetite-stimulatory signal from stomach with structural resemblance to motilin. Asakawa, A., Inui, A., Kaga, T., Yuzuriha, H., Nagata, T., Ueno, N., Makino, S., Fujimiya, M., Niijima, A., Fujino, M.A., Kasuga, M. Gastroenterology (2001) [Pubmed]
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