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Gene Review

AZI2  -  5-azacytidine induced 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 5-azacytidine-induced protein 2, AZ2, FLJ21939, NAP1, NF-kappa-B-activating kinase-associated protein 1, ...
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Disease relevance of AZI2

  • Synthetic peptide AZ2, amino acids 75-99 from V1 CD4, KIEDSDTYIC(Acm)-EVEDQKEEVQLLVFG, and dextran sulfate 500,000 (DS 500) were used as inhibitory agents of antibody binding in ELISA using: (1) anti-peptide rabbit antibodies; (2) sera from HIV infected persons [1].

High impact information on AZI2

  • NAP-1-IgG did not compete with 125I-NAP-1 for binding to neutrophils, which suggests that IgG anti-NAP-1 is a molecular trap that prevents binding of NAP-1 to neutrophils after it diffuses from production sites into the circulation [2].
  • However, at pH 2.0 in 9 M urea approximately 15% of the total NAP-1 could be dissociated from the complex [2].
  • NAP1 activates NAK and facilitates its oligomerization [3].
  • Depletion of NAP1 reduced NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene expression and sensitized cells to TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis [3].
  • The findings suggest a possible role of NAP1 in chromatin remodeling processes involved in transcription and replication by modulating the local linker histone content [4].

Biological context of AZI2


Anatomical context of AZI2

  • Specific antibodies raised against a fusion protein including glutathione S-transferase revealed a band of an approximately 48kDa translation product for testis, brain, lung, and cultured cells that ectopically expressed the AZ2 protein [5].
  • Neutrophil attractant protein-1-immunoglobulin G immune complexes and free anti-NAP-1 antibody in normal human serum [2].
  • In addition to its chemotactic activity for neutrophils, NAP-1 induced chemotactic responses by T lymphocytes and basophils [6].
  • The purpose of this study was to determine if NAP-1 interacted with other types of blood leukocytes [6].
  • Neutrophil attractant/activation protein-1 (NAP-1) was previously shown to attract human neutrophils, but not monocytes [6].

Associations of AZI2 with chemical compounds

  • Neutrophil attractant/activation protein-1 (NAP-1) causes human basophil histamine release [7].
  • Chemical modification of lysine epsilon-amino groups of these peptides resulted in complete failure to bind either DS or AZ2 [1].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of AZI2

  • The ELISA for free NAP-1 used a monoclonal capture antibody that did not bind NAP-1-IgG [2].
  • The effect of NAP1 on the chromatin fiber structure was examined by scanning/atomic force microscopy [4].
  • NAP1 induced a reversible change toward an extended fiber conformation as demonstrated by sedimentation velocity ultracentrifugation experiments [4].
  • The symmetrical histogram obtained by flow cytometry of neutrophils equilibrated at 0 degree C with fluoresceinated NAP-1 indicates that all neutrophils bound the ligand [6].
  • Intradermal injection into normal human subjects of 40 microliters of NAP-1, over a concentration range of 4 x 10(-8) M to 10(-6) M, caused no symptoms or signs such as wheal-and-flare, itching, induration, or tenderness [8].


  1. CD4-derived peptide and sulfated polysaccharides have similar mechanisms of anti-HIV activity based on electrostatic interactions with positively charged gp120 fragments. Meshcheryakova, D., Andreev, S., Tarasova, S., Sidorova, M., Vafina, M., Kornilaeva, G., Karamov, E., Khaitov, R. Mol. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Neutrophil attractant protein-1-immunoglobulin G immune complexes and free anti-NAP-1 antibody in normal human serum. Sylvester, I., Yoshimura, T., Sticherling, M., Schröder, J.M., Ceska, M., Peichl, P., Leonard, E.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Identification of NAP1, a regulatory subunit of IkappaB kinase-related kinases that potentiates NF-kappaB signaling. Fujita, F., Taniguchi, Y., Kato, T., Narita, Y., Furuya, A., Ogawa, T., Sakurai, H., Joh, T., Itoh, M., Delhase, M., Karin, M., Nakanishi, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. NAP1 modulates binding of linker histone H1 to chromatin and induces an extended chromatin fiber conformation. Kepert, J.F., Mazurkiewicz, J., Heuvelman, G.L., Tóth, K.F., Rippe, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Isolation of the novel cDNA of a gene of which expression is induced by a demethylating stimulus. Miyagawa, J., Muguruma, M., Aoto, H., Suetake, I., Nakamura, M., Tajima, S. Gene (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Leukocyte specificity and binding of human neutrophil attractant/activation protein-1. Leonard, E.J., Skeel, A., Yoshimura, T., Noer, K., Kutvirt, S., Van Epps, D. J. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Neutrophil attractant/activation protein-1 (NAP-1) causes human basophil histamine release. White, M.V., Yoshimura, T., Hook, W., Kaliner, M.A., Leonard, E.J. Immunol. Lett. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Neutrophil recruitment by intradermally injected neutrophil attractant/activation protein-1. Leonard, E.J., Yoshimura, T., Tanaka, S., Raffeld, M. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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