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Gene Review

PR1  -  pathogenesis-related protein 1

Arabidopsis thaliana

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Disease relevance of PR1


High impact information on PR1

  • In the npr1-1 background, the sni1 (suppressor of npr1-1, inducible 1) mutant shows near wild-type levels of PR1 expression and resistance to pathogens after induction [2].
  • The expression of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in plants involves the upregulation of many Pathogenesis-Related (PR) genes, which work in concert to confer resistance to a broad spectrum of pathogens [3].
  • We show that TGA2 and NPR1 are recruited to PR-1 independently of each other and of SA treatment [4].
  • Although ssi2 fad6 plants are rescued in their morphological phenotypes, including larger size, absence of visible lesions, and straight leaves, these plants continue to exhibit microscopic cell death and express the PR-1 gene constitutively [5].
  • Intact LOS and the lipid A and core oligosaccharides derived from it were all able to induce the defense-related genes PR1 and PR2 in Arabidopsis and to prevent the hypersensitive response caused by avirulent bacteria [6].

Biological context of PR1

  • Analysis of marker gene expression using these HIFs indicated a negative correlation between the induced amount of transcripts of SA-dependent genes PR1, ICS and PR5, and the in planta bacterial growth in the HIF segregating at PRP-Ps2 locus, suggesting an implication of PRP-Ps2 in the activation of SA dependent responses [7].
  • Two additional PR-1-like genes were identified through in-silico analysis of apple ESTs deposited in GenBank [8].
  • The thaxtomin A-induced form of programmed cell death (PCD) was not a typical HR, since defence responses generally preceding or associated with the HR, such as rapid medium alkalization, oxidative burst and expression of defence-related genes PR1 and PDF1.2, were not observed in plant cells following addition of thaxtomin A [9].
  • We have characterized cis-acting regulatory elements in the PR-1 promoter involved in INA induction using deletion analysis, linker-scanning mutagenesis, and in vivo footprinting [10].
  • High signal ratios of the ChIP sample versus raw chromatin for clusters of neighboring probes provided evidence for 51 putative binding sites for TGA2, including the only previously confirmed site in the promoter of PR-1 (At2g14610) [11].

Associations of PR1 with chemical compounds

  • These WRKY25-overexpressing plants also displayed reduced expression of the SA-regulated PR1 gene after the pathogen infection, despite normal levels of free SA [12].
  • In addition, the pathogenesis-related (PR) genes encoding beta-1,3-glucanase, osmotin, and PR1 were constitutively expressed in 35S::VR-EIL lines without added ethylene, and were hyperinduced in response to ethylene treatment [13].
  • Treatment of Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia-0 plants with thiamine resulted in the activation of PR-1 but not PDF1 [14].
  • Furthermore, benzothiadiazole, a functional analog of salicylic acid, induced PR1 expression faster and to a higher level in the AtNPR1-expressing wheat than in the nontransgenic plants [15].

Regulatory relationships of PR1

  • The susceptibility of WRKY33-over-expressing plants to P. syringae is associated with reduced expression of the salicylate-regulated PR-1 gene [16].
  • PR1 expression is induced rapidly to a high level in the fungus-challenged spikes of the AtNPR1-expressing wheat [15].

Other interactions of PR1


  1. Arabidopsis thaliana PAD4 encodes a lipase-like gene that is important for salicylic acid signaling. Jirage, D., Tootle, T.L., Reuber, T.L., Frost, L.N., Feys, B.J., Parker, J.E., Ausubel, F.M., Glazebrook, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification and cloning of a negative regulator of systemic acquired resistance, SNI1, through a screen for suppressors of npr1-1. Li, X., Zhang, Y., Clarke, J.D., Li, Y., Dong, X. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. A comprehensive structure-function analysis of Arabidopsis SNI1 defines essential regions and transcriptional repressor activity. Mosher, R.A., Durrant, W.E., Wang, D., Song, J., Dong, X. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. The Coactivator Function of Arabidopsis NPR1 Requires the Core of Its BTB/POZ Domain and the Oxidation of C-Terminal Cysteines. Rochon, A., Boyle, P., Wignes, T., Fobert, P.R., Després, C. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Plastidial fatty acid signaling modulates salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-mediated defense pathways in the Arabidopsis ssi2 mutant. Kachroo, A., Lapchyk, L., Fukushige, H., Hildebrand, D., Klessig, D., Kachroo, P. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. The elicitation of plant innate immunity by lipooligosaccharide of Xanthomonas campestris. Silipo, A., Molinaro, A., Sturiale, L., Dow, J.M., Erbs, G., Lanzetta, R., Newman, M.A., Parrilli, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Natural Variation in Partial Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae Is Controlled by Two Major QTLs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Perchepied, L., Kroj, T., Tronchet, M., Loudet, O., Roby, D. PLoS ONE (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. PR genes of apple: identification and expression in response to elicitors and inoculation with Erwinia amylovora. Bonasera, J.M., Kim, J.F., Beer, S.V. BMC Plant Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Thaxtomin A induces programmed cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana suspension-cultured cells. Duval, I., Brochu, V., Simard, M., Beaulieu, C., Beaudoin, N. Planta (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Functional analysis of regulatory sequences controlling PR-1 gene expression in Arabidopsis. Lebel, E., Heifetz, P., Thorne, L., Uknes, S., Ryals, J., Ward, E. Plant J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Development of Arabidopsis whole-genome microarrays and their application to the discovery of binding sites for the TGA2 transcription factor in salicylic acid-treated plants. Thibaud-Nissen, F., Wu, H., Richmond, T., Redman, J.C., Johnson, C., Green, R., Arias, J., Town, C.D. Plant J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Functional analysis of Arabidopsis WRKY25 transcription factor in plant defense against Pseudomonas syringae. Zheng, Z., Mosher, S.L., Fan, B., Klessig, D.F., Chen, Z. BMC Plant Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Molecular and biochemical characterization of VR-EILs encoding mung bean ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE proteins. Lee, J.H., Kim, W.T. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Vitamin B1 functions as an activator of plant disease resistance. Ahn, I.P., Kim, S., Lee, Y.H. Plant Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Genetically engineered resistance to Fusarium head blight in wheat by expression of Arabidopsis NPR1. Makandar, R., Essig, J.S., Schapaugh, M.A., Trick, H.N., Shah, J. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Arabidopsis WRKY33 transcription factor is required for resistance to necrotrophic fungal pathogens. Zheng, Z., Qamar, S.A., Chen, Z., Mengiste, T. Plant J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification and functional expression of the pepper pathogen-induced gene, CAPIP2, involved in disease resistance and drought and salt stress tolerance. Lee, S.C., Kim, S.H., An, S.H., Yi, S.Y., Hwang, B.K. Plant Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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