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Gene Review

PR-1-LIKE  -  pathogenesis-related protein-1-like protein

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: T2G17.21, T2G17_21, pathogenesis-related protein-1-like
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Disease relevance of PR-1-LIKE

  • At2g14610 (PR-1-like) showed the archetypal patterns of SA-responsive expression: mRNA levels increased following SA-treatment, inoculation with an avirulent (but not a virulent) strain of Pseudomonas syringae, and in wild-type (but not NahG) Arabidopsis infected with cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) [1].
  • Based on changes in PR1 gene expression and a decrease in free salicylic acid levels upon Agrobacterium infection, we suggest mechanisms by which AGP17 allows Agrobacterium rapidly to reduce the systemic acquired resistance response during the infection process [2].
  • In two ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia and Nössen), SA-induced resistance to a tobamovirus, Turnip vein clearing virus (TVCV), was also induced by nonlethal concentrations of cyanide and AA without concomitant induction of PR-1 gene expression [3].

High impact information on PR-1-LIKE

  • In striking contrast, none of these pathways was required for cpr22-induced salicylic acid accumulation or PR-1 gene expression [4].
  • Mutant plants with a T-DNA insertion in NIMIN1 as well as transgenic plants with reduced NIMIN1 mRNA levels showed hyperactivation of PR-1 gene expression after SA treatment but no effect on the disease resistance phenotype [5].
  • Healthy ocp3 plants show increased accumulation of H(2)O(2) and express constitutively the Glutathione S-transferase1 and Plant Defensine 1.2 marker genes, but not the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent pathogenesis-related PR-1 gene [6].
  • In this study, we show that each of four eds mutants (eds5-1, eds6-1, eds7-1, and eds9-1) has a distinguishable phenotype with respect to the degree of susceptibility to a panel of bacterial phytopathogens and the ability to activate pathogenesis-related PR-1 gene expression after pathogen attack [7].
  • Treatment with BABA did not induce the accumulation of mRNA of the systemic acquired resistance (SAR)-associated PR-1 and the ethylene- and jasmonic acid-dependent PDF1.2 genes [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of PR-1-LIKE

  • Dexamethasone-induced expression of avrRpt2 in transgenic lines having the RPS2 gene resulted in a specific hypersensitive cell death response that resembled a Pseudomonas syringae-induced hypersensitive response and also induced the expression of a pathogenesis-related gene (PR1) [9].

Biological context of PR-1-LIKE

  • This gene is also identified as PR-1 in two "full genome" Arabidopsis microarrays, and TAIR cites approximately 60 articles to describe its patterns of expression [1].
  • ALD1 and PAD4 can act additively to control SA, PATHOGENESIS RELATED GENE1 (PR1) transcript and camalexin (an antimicrobial metabolite) accumulation as well as disease resistance [10].
  • This protein showed high amino acid sequence identity with basic and acidic PR1 proteins from other plant species, for example PRB1 from Nicotiana tabacum and PR1 from Brassica napus, at 64% and 78% identity respectively [11].
  • The ndr1-1 mutation prevents hypersensitive cell death, systemic acquired resistance and PR-1 induction elicited by bacteria carrying avrRpt2 [12].
  • Two additional PR-1-like genes were identified through in-silico analysis of apple ESTs deposited in GenBank [13].

Anatomical context of PR-1-LIKE

  • The induction of PR1 by SA and functional analogues has been found to strictly correlate with the activity of the signalling pathway controlled by both phyA and phyB photoreceptors [14].

Associations of PR-1-LIKE with chemical compounds

  • PR-1 has been extensively used as a marker for salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defence and systemic and local acquired resistance [1].
  • The promoter of a basic PR1-like gene, AtPRB1, from Arabidopsis establishes an organ-specific expression pattern and responsiveness to ethylene and methyl jasmonate [11].
  • These data suggest that NPR1 may regulate PR-1 gene expression by interacting with a subclass of basic leucine zipper protein transcription factors [15].
  • These suggested that there was a transient synergistic enhancement in the expression of genes associated with either JA (PDF1.2 [defensin] and Thi1.2 [thionin]) or SA (PR1 [PR1a-beta-glucuronidase in tobacco]) signaling when both signals were applied at low (typically 10-100 microm) concentrations [16].
  • The altered basal resistance to these pathogens in the ssi2 mutant plant is accompanied by the constitutive accumulation of elevated salicylic acid (SA) level and expression of the pathogenesis-related 1 (PR1) gene, the inability of jasmonic acid (JA) to activate expression of the defensin gene, PDF1.2, and the spontaneous death of cells [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PR-1-LIKE

  • In the electrophoretic mobility shift assay, NPR1 substantially increased the binding of TGA2 to its cognate promoter element (as-1) as well as to a positive salicylic acid-inducible element (LS7) and a negative element (LS5) in the promoter of the pathogenesis-related PR-1 gene [18].
  • Further Northern blot analyses revealed that some mutants accumulate higher levels of PR1 mRNA than wild type in response to infection by powdery mildew [19].


  1. Inappropriate annotation of a key defence marker in Arabidopsis: will the real PR-1 please stand up? Laird, J., Armengaud, P., Giuntini, P., Laval, V., Milner, J.J. Planta (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Characterization of the Arabidopsis lysine-rich arabinogalactan-protein AtAGP17 mutant (rat1) that results in a decreased efficiency of agrobacterium transformation. Gaspar, Y.M., Nam, J., Schultz, C.J., Lee, L.Y., Gilson, P.R., Gelvin, S.B., Bacic, A. Plant Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Chemically induced virus resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana is independent of pathogenesis-related protein expression and the NPR1 gene. Wong, C.E., Carson, R.A., Carr, J.P. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. The chimeric Arabidopsis CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-GATED ION CHANNEL11/12 activates multiple pathogen resistance responses. Yoshioka, K., Moeder, W., Kang, H.G., Kachroo, P., Masmoudi, K., Berkowitz, G., Klessig, D.F. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Interaction of NIMIN1 with NPR1 modulates PR gene expression in Arabidopsis. Weigel, R.R., Pfitzner, U.M., Gatz, C. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. An Arabidopsis homeodomain transcription factor, OVEREXPRESSOR OF CATIONIC PEROXIDASE 3, mediates resistance to infection by necrotrophic pathogens. Coego, A., Ramirez, V., Gil, M.J., Flors, V., Mauch-Mani, B., Vera, P. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Arabidopsis enhanced disease susceptibility mutants exhibit enhanced susceptibility to several bacterial pathogens and alterations in PR-1 gene expression. Rogers, E.E., Ausubel, F.M. Plant Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Potentiation of pathogen-specific defense mechanisms in Arabidopsis by beta -aminobutyric acid. Zimmerli, L., Jakab, G., Metraux, J.P., Mauch-Mani, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Glucocorticoid-inducible expression of a bacterial avirulence gene in transgenic Arabidopsis induces hypersensitive cell death. McNellis, T.W., Mudgett, M.B., Li, K., Aoyama, T., Horvath, D., Chua, N.H., Staskawicz, B.J. Plant J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. A key role for ALD1 in activation of local and systemic defenses in Arabidopsis. Song, J.T., Lu, H., McDowell, J.M., Greenberg, J.T. Plant J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. The promoter of a basic PR1-like gene, AtPRB1, from Arabidopsis establishes an organ-specific expression pattern and responsiveness to ethylene and methyl jasmonate. Santamaria, M., Thomson, C.J., Read, N.D., Loake, G.J. Plant Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Two pathways act in an additive rather than obligatorily synergistic fashion to induce systemic acquired resistance and PR gene expression. Zhang, C., Shapiro, A.D. BMC Plant Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. PR genes of apple: identification and expression in response to elicitors and inoculation with Erwinia amylovora. Bonasera, J.M., Kim, J.F., Beer, S.V. BMC Plant Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Phytochrome signalling modulates the SA-perceptive pathway in Arabidopsis. Genoud, T., Buchala, A.J., Chua, N.H., Métraux, J.P. Plant J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Interaction of NPR1 with basic leucine zipper protein transcription factors that bind sequences required for salicylic acid induction of the PR-1 gene. Zhang, Y., Fan, W., Kinkema, M., Li, X., Dong, X. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. The outcomes of concentration-specific interactions between salicylate and jasmonate signaling include synergy, antagonism, and oxidative stress leading to cell death. Mur, L.A., Kenton, P., Atzorn, R., Miersch, O., Wasternack, C. Plant Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Arabidopsis ssi2-conferred susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea is dependent on EDS5 and PAD4. Nandi, A., Moeder, W., Kachroo, P., Klessig, D.F., Shah, J. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. The Arabidopsis NPR1/NIM1 protein enhances the DNA binding activity of a subgroup of the TGA family of bZIP transcription factors. Després, C., DeLong, C., Glaze, S., Liu, E., Fobert, P.R. Plant Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Isolation and characterization of powdery mildew-resistant Arabidopsis mutants. Vogel, J., Somerville, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
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