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Chemical Compound Review

Camalexin     3-(1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-1H-indole

Synonyms: CHEMBL239716, SureCN343413, CHEBI:22990, AC1LCT8V, LS-186990, ...
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Disease relevance of Camalexin


High impact information on Camalexin


Biological context of Camalexin


Anatomical context of Camalexin


Associations of Camalexin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Camalexin

  • The Arabidopsis PAD4 gene previously was found to be required for expression of multiple defense responses including camalexin synthesis and PR-1 gene expression in response to infection by the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola [16].
  • These results demonstrate that only CYP79B2 and CYP79B3 contribute significantly to the IAOx pool from which camalexin and indole glucosinolates are synthesized [12].
  • We are working to determine the role of the Arabidopsis phytoalexin, camalexin, in protecting the plant from pathogen attack by isolating phytoalexin-deficient (pad) mutants in the accession Columbia (Col-0) and examining their response to pathogens [17].
  • Moreover, the expression of BABA-induced resistance was not associated with enhanced accumulation of camalexin or enhanced transcription of the JA-inducible PDF1.2 gene [18].
  • The biosynthesis of camalexin, the main phytoalexin of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, involves at least two CYP (cytochrome P450) steps [11].
  • Together, these results lead to the conclusion that CYP71A13 catalyzes the conversion of IAOx to IAN in camalexin synthesis and provide further support for the role of camalexin in resistance to A. brassicicola [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Camalexin

  • TLC plate bioassays suggested that A. brassicicola was relatively insensitive to camalexin, thus casting some doubt on the importance of this compound in defense [20].


  1. PAD4 functions upstream from salicylic acid to control defense responses in Arabidopsis. Zhou, N., Tootle, T.L., Tsui, F., Klessig, D.F., Glazebrook, J. Plant Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Coordinate regulation of the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway and indolic phytoalexin accumulation in Arabidopsis. Zhao, J., Last, R.L. Plant Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Genetic evidence that expression of NahG modifies defence pathways independent of salicylic acid biosynthesis in the Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato interaction. Heck, S., Grau, T., Buchala, A., Métraux, J.P., Nawrath, C. Plant J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Mode of action of the Arabidopsis thaliana phytoalexin camalexin and its role in Arabidopsis-pathogen interactions. Rogers, E.E., Glazebrook, J., Ausubel, F.M. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Arabidopsis PAD3, a gene required for camalexin biosynthesis, encodes a putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. Zhou, N., Tootle, T.L., Glazebrook, J. Plant Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Salicylic acid induction-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis express PR-2 and PR-5 and accumulate high levels of camalexin after pathogen inoculation. Nawrath, C., Métraux, J.P. Plant Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification of PAD2 as a gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase highlights the importance of glutathione in disease resistance of Arabidopsis. Parisy, V., Poinssot, B., Owsianowski, L., Buchala, A., Glazebrook, J., Mauch, F. Plant J. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Secondary metabolites influence Arabidopsis/Botrytis interactions: variation in host production and pathogen sensitivity. Kliebenstein, D.J., Rowe, H.C., Denby, K.J. Plant J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. ups1, an Arabidopsis thaliana camalexin accumulation mutant defective in multiple defence signalling pathways. Denby, K.J., Jason, L.J., Murray, S.L., Last, R.L. Plant J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of an Arabidopsis locus required for resistance to turnip crinkle virus. Dempsey, D.A., Pathirana, M.S., Wobbe, K.K., Klessig, D.F. Plant J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. The role of cytochrome P450 enzymes in the biosynthesis of camalexin. Glawischnig, E. Biochem. Soc. Trans. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Camalexin is synthesized from indole-3-acetaldoxime, a key branching point between primary and secondary metabolism in Arabidopsis. Glawischnig, E., Hansen, B.G., Olsen, C.E., Halkier, B.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Origin of the thiazole ring of camalexin, a phytoalexin from Arabidopsis thaliana. Zook, M., Hammerschmidt, R. Plant Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of the early response of Arabidopsis to Alternaria brassicicola infection using expression profiling. van Wees, S.C., Chang, H.S., Zhu, T., Glazebrook, J. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression of a nitric oxide degrading enzyme induces a senescence programme in Arabidopsis. Mishina, T.E., Lamb, C., Zeier, J. Plant Cell Environ. (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. Arabidopsis thaliana PAD4 encodes a lipase-like gene that is important for salicylic acid signaling. Jirage, D., Tootle, T.L., Reuber, T.L., Frost, L.N., Feys, B.J., Parker, J.E., Ausubel, F.M., Glazebrook, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Phytoalexin-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis reveal that PAD4 encodes a regulatory factor and that four PAD genes contribute to downy mildew resistance. Glazebrook, J., Zook, M., Mert, F., Kagan, I., Rogers, E.E., Crute, I.R., Holub, E.B., Hammerschmidt, R., Ausubel, F.M. Genetics (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Beta-amino-butyric acid-induced resistance against necrotrophic pathogens is based on ABA-dependent priming for callose. Ton, J., Mauch-Mani, B. Plant J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Arabidopsis cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 71A13 catalyzes the conversion of indole-3-acetaldoxime in camalexin synthesis. Nafisi, M., Goregaoker, S., Botanga, C.J., Glawischnig, E., Olsen, C.E., Halkier, B.A., Glazebrook, J. Plant. Cell (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. Arabidopsis ecotype variability in camalexin production and reaction to infection by Alternaria brassicicola. Kagan, I.A., Hammerschmidt, R. J. Chem. Ecol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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