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Gene Review

ADC1  -  arginine decarboxylase 1

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: ARGDC, ARGDC1, ARGININE DECARBOXYLASE, F1P15.12, F1P15_12, ...
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Disease relevance of ADC1


High impact information on ADC1

  • No induction was observed for the ADC1 gene or other genes coding for spermidine and spermine synthases, suggesting that ADC2 is the only gene of polyamine biosynthesis involved in the wounding response mediated by JA [2].
  • A transient increase in the level of free putrescine followed the increase in the mRNA level for ADC2 [2].
  • Abscisic acid effected a strong induction on ADC2 expression and had no effect on ADC1 expression [2].
  • An increase in the expression of the arginine decarboxylase 2 (ADC2) gene in response to mechanical wounding and methyl jasmonate (JA) treatment in Arabidopsis was detected by using DNA microarray and RNA gel-blot analysis [2].
  • Amino acids K136 and C524 of Arabidopsis ADC1 are essential for activity and participate in separate active sites [3].

Biological context of ADC1

  • One major feature of the promoter of ADC1 was the presence of a novel transposable element, which was shown to possess all of the characteristics of Miniature Inverted-repeat Transposable Elements (MITEs), and to be present in 26 full-length copies and 1617 partial copies and fragments distributed throughout the Arabidopsis genome [4].
  • Analysis of 5' regulatory regions of these ADC genes revealed several differences in putative cis-regulatory elements, which could be associated with specific expression patterns [5].
  • These results were compared to ADC paralogue expression in Arabidopsis thaliana and are discussed in the evolutionary context of genetic diversity resulting from gene duplication [5].
  • To test this hypothesis, we developed two binary vectors harboring a stress-inducible promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana, driving the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene and the oat arginine decarboxylase [6].

Associations of ADC1 with chemical compounds

  • Arginine decarboxylase (ADC) is an important enzyme in the production of putrescine and polyamines in plants [7].
  • One pathway starts with the enzyme arginine decarboxylase; the other with ornithine decarboxylase [8].
  • During exposure to chilling stress (5 degrees C), the transgenics displayed a remarkable increase in arginine decarboxylase activity and conjugated spermidine contents in leaves compared to the wild type [9].

Other interactions of ADC1

  • Two copies of the Adc gene, Adc1 and Adc2, are found in all members of the Brassicaceae studied to data except the basal genus Aethionema [7].


  1. Regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh Arginine decarboxylase by potassium deficiency stress. Watson, M.B., Malmberg, R.L. Plant Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Induction of the arginine decarboxylase ADC2 gene provides evidence for the involvement of polyamines in the wound response in Arabidopsis. Perez-Amador, M.A., Leon, J., Green, P.J., Carbonell, J. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Arabidopsis polyamine biosynthesis: absence of ornithine decarboxylase and the mechanism of arginine decarboxylase activity. Hanfrey, C., Sommer, S., Mayer, M.J., Burtin, D., Michael, A.J. Plant J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Genome-wide distribution and potential regulatory functions of AtATE, a novel family of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements in Arabidopsis thaliana. El Amrani, A., Marie, L., Aïnouche, A., Nicolas, J., Couée, I. Mol. Genet. Genomics (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Characterization of the two arginine decarboxylase (polyamine biosynthesis) paralogues of the endemic subantarctic cruciferous species Pringlea antiscorbutica and analysis of their differential expression during development and response to environmental stress. Hummel, I., Gouesbet, G., El Amrani, A., Aïnouche, A., Couée, I. Gene (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Lotus hairy roots expressing inducible arginine decarboxylase activity. Chiesa, M.A., Ruiz, O.A., Sánchez, D.H. Biotechnol. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Phylogenetic utility of the nuclear gene arginine decarboxylase: an example from Brassicaceae. Galloway, G.L., Malmberg, R.L., Price, R.A. Mol. Biol. Evol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Arginine decarboxylase (polyamine synthesis) mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit altered root growth. Watson, M.B., Emory, K.K., Piatak, R.M., Malmberg, R.L. Plant J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Overexpression of spermidine synthase enhances tolerance to multiple environmental stresses and up-regulates the expression of various stress-regulated genes in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. Kasukabe, Y., He, L., Nada, K., Misawa, S., Ihara, I., Tachibana, S. Plant Cell Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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