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Gene Review

EDS1  -  enhanced disease susceptibility 1 protein

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: ATEDS1, EDS1 PROTEIN, enhanced disease susceptibility 1
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Disease relevance of EDS1


High impact information on EDS1


Biological context of EDS1

  • Consistent with these observations, siz1 plants exhibited enhanced resistance to Pst DC3000 expressing avrRps4, a bacterial avirulence determinant that responds to the EDS1/PAD4-dependent TIR-NBS-type R gene [6].
  • The roles of EDS1 and PAD4 in regulating lsd1 runaway cell death are related to the interpretation of reactive oxygen intermediate-derived signals at infection sites [7].
  • Arabidopsis thaliana ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) controls defense activation and programmed cell death conditioned by intracellular Toll-related immune receptors that recognize specific pathogen effectors [8].
  • An Arabidopsis whole genome microarray experiment was designed to identify genes whose expression depends on EDS1 and PAD4, irrespective of local SA accumulation, and potential candidates of an SA-independent branch of EDS1 defense were found [8].
  • The EDS1 gene was cloned by targeted transposon tagging and found to encode a protein that has similarity in its amino-terminal portion to the catalytic site of eukaryotic lipases [9].

Associations of EDS1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of EDS1

  • Yeast two-hybrid analysis reveals that EDS1 can dimerize and interact with PAD4 [4].

Regulatory relationships of EDS1

  • Our results suggest that RPP4-mediated resistance is developmentally regulated and that in cotyledons there is cross-talk between EDS1 and NDR1 signalling and processes regulating systemic acquired resistance [12].
  • FLAVIN-DEPENDENT MONOOXYGENASE1 (FMO1) positively regulates the EDS1 pathway, and one member (NUDT7) of a family of cytosolic Nudix hydrolases exerts negative control of EDS1 signaling [8].
  • Expression of RPS4 in tobacco induces an AvrRps4-independent HR that requires EDS1, SGT1 and HSP90 [13].

Other interactions of EDS1

  • Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that EDS1 and PAD4 proteins interact in healthy and pathogen-challenged plant cells [4].
  • The identification of RPP4 as a TIR-NB-LRR protein, coupled with its dependence on certain signalling components in true leaves, is consistent with the hypothesis that distinct NB-LRR protein classes differentially signal through EDS1 and NDR1 [12].
  • Postinvasion fungal growth is blocked by a separate resistance layer requiring the EDS1-PAD4-SAG101 signaling complex, which is known to function in basal and resistance (R) gene-triggered immunity [14].
  • Analysis of fmo1 and nudt7 mutants alone or in combination with sid2-1, a mutation that severely depletes pathogen-induced SA production, points to SA-independent functions of FMO1 and NUDT7 in EDS1-conditioned disease resistance and cell death [8].
  • Therefore, actin cytoskeletal function and EDS1 activity, in combination, are major contributors to NHR in Arabidopsis against wheat powdery mildew [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of EDS1

  • The data presented here indicate that eds genes define a variety of components involved in limiting pathogen growth, that many additional EDS genes remain to be discovered, and that direct screens for mutants with altered susceptibility to pathogens are helpful in the dissection of complex pathogen response pathways in plants [16].


  1. An EDS1 orthologue is required for N-mediated resistance against tobacco mosaic virus. Peart, J.R., Cook, G., Feys, B.J., Parker, J.E., Baulcombe, D.C. Plant J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Arabidopsis enhanced disease susceptibility mutants exhibit enhanced susceptibility to several bacterial pathogens and alterations in PR-1 gene expression. Rogers, E.E., Ausubel, F.M. Plant Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Knockout of Arabidopsis accelerated-cell-death11 encoding a sphingosine transfer protein causes activation of programmed cell death and defense. Brodersen, P., Petersen, M., Pike, H.M., Olszak, B., Skov, S., Odum, N., Jørgensen, L.B., Brown, R.E., Mundy, J. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Direct interaction between the Arabidopsis disease resistance signaling proteins, EDS1 and PAD4. Feys, B.J., Moisan, L.J., Newman, M.A., Parker, J.E. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. The chimeric Arabidopsis CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-GATED ION CHANNEL11/12 activates multiple pathogen resistance responses. Yoshioka, K., Moeder, W., Kang, H.G., Kachroo, P., Masmoudi, K., Berkowitz, G., Klessig, D.F. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Salicylic acid-mediated innate immunity in Arabidopsis is regulated by SIZ1 SUMO E3 ligase. Lee, J., Nam, J., Park, H.C., Na, G., Miura, K., Jin, J.B., Yoo, C.Y., Baek, D., Kim, D.H., Jeong, J.C., Kim, D., Lee, S.Y., Salt, D.E., Mengiste, T., Gong, Q., Ma, S., Bohnert, H.J., Kwak, S.S., Bressan, R.A., Hasegawa, P.M., Yun, D.J. Plant J. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. The disease resistance signaling components EDS1 and PAD4 are essential regulators of the cell death pathway controlled by LSD1 in Arabidopsis. Rustérucci, C., Aviv, D.H., Holt, B.F., Dangl, J.L., Parker, J.E. Plant Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Salicylic acid-independent ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 signaling in arabidopsis immunity and cell death is regulated by the monooxygenase FMO1 and the Nudix hydrolase NUDT7. Bartsch, M., Gobbato, E., Bednarek, P., Debey, S., Schultze, J.L., Bautor, J., Parker, J.E. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. EDS1, an essential component of R gene-mediated disease resistance in Arabidopsis has homology to eukaryotic lipases. Falk, A., Feys, B.J., Frost, L.N., Jones, J.D., Daniels, M.J., Parker, J.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 regulates salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent responses via EDS1 and PAD4. Brodersen, P., Petersen, M., Bjørn Nielsen, H., Zhu, S., Newman, M.A., Shokat, K.M., Rietz, S., Parker, J., Mundy, J. Plant J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of Arabidopsis enhanced disease susceptibility mutants that are affected in systemically induced resistance. Ton, J., De Vos, M., Robben, C., Buchala, A., Métraux, J.P., Van Loon, L.C., Pieterse, C.M. Plant J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Arabidopsis RPP4 is a member of the RPP5 multigene family of TIR-NB-LRR genes and confers downy mildew resistance through multiple signalling components. van der Biezen, E.A., Freddie, C.T., Kahn, K., Parker, J.E., Jones, J.D. Plant J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Expression of RPS4 in tobacco induces an AvrRps4-independent HR that requires EDS1, SGT1 and HSP90. Zhang, Y., Dorey, S., Swiderski, M., Jones, J.D. Plant J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Pre- and postinvasion defenses both contribute to nonhost resistance in Arabidopsis. Lipka, V., Dittgen, J., Bednarek, P., Bhat, R., Wiermer, M., Stein, M., Landtag, J., Brandt, W., Rosahl, S., Scheel, D., Llorente, F., Molina, A., Parker, J., Somerville, S., Schulze-Lefert, P. Science (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Loss of actin cytoskeletal function and EDS1 activity, in combination, severely compromises non-host resistance in Arabidopsis against wheat powdery mildew. Yun, B.W., Atkinson, H.A., Gaborit, C., Greenland, A., Read, N.D., Pallas, J.A., Loake, G.J. Plant J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Isolation of new Arabidopsis mutants with enhanced disease susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae by direct screening. Volko, S.M., Boller, T., Ausubel, F.M. Genetics (1998) [Pubmed]
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