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Gene Review

MEKK1  -  mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase...

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: ARAKIN, ATMEKK1, MAPK/ERK kinase kinase 1, MAPKKK8, T15F16.5, ...
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High impact information on MEKK1

  • In Arabidopsis protoplasts, MKK2 was specifically activated by cold and salt stress and by the stress-induced MAPK kinase kinase MEKK1 [1].
  • MEKK1 Is Required for MPK4 Activation and Regulates Tissue-specific and Temperature-dependent Cell Death in Arabidopsis [2].
  • We show here that MEKK1 is not required for flagellin-triggered activation of MPK3 and MPK6 [2].
  • These results suggest the presence of AtMEKK1-AtMEK1 pathway induced by wounding [3].
  • We have constructed a series of deletion mutants of Arabidopsis MAPK kinase kinase (AtMEKK1) and obtained a constitutively active mutant, AtMEKK1Delta166, which lacks in self-inhibitory sequence of N-terminal 166 amino acids but still has substrate specificity [3].

Biological context of MEKK1

  • Overall, our data defines MPK4 as downstream target of MEKK1 and show that MEKK1 functions in integrating ROS homeostasis with plant development and hormone signaling [4].
  • Therefore, we propose that the A. thaliana ATMEKK1 may be a part of the signal transduction pathway involved in osmotic stress [5].
  • Characterisation of novel plant genes encoding MEKK/STE11 and RAF-related protein kinases [6].

Associations of MEKK1 with chemical compounds

  • MEKK1 kinase activity and protein stability was regulated by H(2)O(2) in a proteasome-dependent manner and mekk1 plants were compromised in ROS-induced MAPK MPK4 activation [4].
  • Enhanced glycerol production, observed in non-stressed cells expressing ATMEKK1 is the probable cause of yeast survival [5].

Other interactions of MEKK1

  • Coexpression of the N-terminal deletion form of ATMEKK1 increased the ability of MEK1 to suppress a growth defect of the yeast pbs2delta mutant [7].
  • In two-hybrid screening using ATMEKK1 as bait, we isolated a novel MAPKK homologue, ATMKK2, a MAPK homologue, ATMPK4, and an unknown protein [8].
  • One is the two-hybrid screening of ATMEKK1 (a MAPKKK)-interacting proteins; the other is an analysis of physical and functional interactions among isolated MAPK, MAPKK, and MAPKKK homologues from Arabidopsis [8].


  1. The MKK2 pathway mediates cold and salt stress signaling in Arabidopsis. Teige, M., Scheikl, E., Eulgem, T., Dóczi, R., Ichimura, K., Shinozaki, K., Dangl, J.L., Hirt, H. Mol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. MEKK1 Is Required for MPK4 Activation and Regulates Tissue-specific and Temperature-dependent Cell Death in Arabidopsis. Ichimura, K., Casais, C., Peck, S.C., Shinozaki, K., Shirasu, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Activation of Arabidopsis MAPK kinase kinase (AtMEKK1) and induction of AtMEKK1-AtMEK1 pathway by wounding. Hadiarto, T., Nanmori, T., Matsuoka, D., Iwasaki, T., Sato, K., Fukami, Y., Azuma, T., Yasuda, T. Planta (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. A Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Mediates Reactive Oxygen Species Homeostasis in Arabidopsis. Nakagami, H., Soukupov??, H., Schikora, A., Z??rsky, V., Hirt, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Functional characterization of ARAKIN (ATMEKK1): a possible mediator in an osmotic stress response pathway in higher plants. Covic, L., Silva, N.F., Lew, R.R. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Characterisation of novel plant genes encoding MEKK/STE11 and RAF-related protein kinases. Jouannic, S., Hamal, A., Leprince, A.S., Tregear, J.W., Kreis, M., Henry, Y. Gene (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification of a possible MAP kinase cascade in Arabidopsis thaliana based on pairwise yeast two-hybrid analysis and functional complementation tests of yeast mutants. Mizoguchi, T., Ichimura, K., Irie, K., Morris, P., Giraudat, J., Matsumoto, K., Shinozaki, K. FEBS Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Isolation of ATMEKK1 (a MAP kinase kinase kinase)-interacting proteins and analysis of a MAP kinase cascade in Arabidopsis. Ichimura, K., Mizoguchi, T., Irie, K., Morris, P., Giraudat, J., Matsumoto, K., Shinozaki, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1998) [Pubmed]
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