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Gene Review

PHOT2  -  phototropin 2

Arabidopsis thaliana

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Disease relevance of PHOT2

  • Moreover, the data obtained from full-length Arabidopsis phot1 and phot2 expressed in insect cells closely resemble those obtained for the tandem LOV-domain fusion proteins expressed in E. coli [1].

High impact information on PHOT2


Biological context of PHOT2


Anatomical context of PHOT2


Associations of PHOT2 with chemical compounds

  • In all WT plants and in phot2 mutants, BL induced immediate Ca(2+) influx [5].
  • Here we demonstrate that npl1, like nph1, noncovalently binds the chromophore flavin mononucleotide (FMN) within two specialized PAS domains, termed LOV domains [10].
  • Phototropins (phot1 and phot2) are autophosphorylating serine/threonine kinases that function as photoreceptors for phototropism, light-induced chloroplast movement, and stomatal opening in Arabidopsis [11].
  • Two blue light receptors in Arabidopsis, termed phot1 and phot2, which contain flavin chromophores and have intrinsic protein kinase activity, participate in several physiological processes [12].

Regulatory relationships of PHOT2

  • Fitness costs of phot1 and nph3 were expressed mainly during seedling emergence from the soil whereas that of phot2 was expressed solely after emergence [6].

Other interactions of PHOT2

  • There is evidence only for the phototropin blue light receptors (PHOT1 and PHOT2) in mediating blue light regulation of stomatal opening [13].
  • Both the jac1 and phot2 mutants are defective in this chloroplast movement in darkness [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PHOT2

  • These results unravel the stoma autonomous function in the blue light response and illuminate the implication of PHOT1 and/or PHOT2 in such response [15].
  • Thus, these results suggest that phot1 and phot2 choose different signal transducers to induce three responses: phototropic response of hypocotyl, stomatal opening, and chloroplast relocation [16].
  • These structural homologies indicate that NPH1 homologues can be grouped into two classes namely "NPH1 type" and "NPL1 type". Northern blot analysis showed that OsNPH1a was strongly expressed in coleoptiles, whereas OsNPH1b was highly expressed in leaves of dark-grown rice seedlings [17].


  1. Photochemical properties of the flavin mononucleotide-binding domains of the phototropins from Arabidopsis, rice, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Kasahara, M., Swartz, T.E., Olney, M.A., Onodera, A., Mochizuki, N., Fukuzawa, H., Asamizu, E., Tabata, S., Kanegae, H., Takano, M., Christie, J.M., Nagatani, A., Briggs, W.R. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Phototropin-related NPL1 controls chloroplast relocation induced by blue light. Jarillo, J.A., Gabrys, H., Capel, J., Alonso, J.M., Ecker, J.R., Cashmore, A.R. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Cellular and subcellular localization of phototropin 1. Sakamoto, K., Briggs, W.R. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Blue light-regulated molecular switch of Ser/Thr kinase in phototropin. Matsuoka, D., Tokutomi, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Blue light-induced kinetics of H+ and Ca2+ fluxes in etiolated wild-type and phototropin-mutant Arabidopsis seedlings. Babourina, O., Newman, I., Shabala, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. An experimental test of the adaptive evolution of phototropins: blue-light photoreceptors controlling phototropism in Arabidopsis thaliana. Galen, C., Huddle, J., Liscum, E. Evolution (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Physiological roles of the light, oxygen, or voltage domains of phototropin 1 and phototropin 2 in Arabidopsis. Cho, H.Y., Tseng, T.S., Kaiserli, E., Sullivan, S., Christie, J.M., Briggs, W.R. Plant Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Blue light-induced association of phototropin 2 with the Golgi apparatus. Kong, S.G., Suzuki, T., Tamura, K., Mochizuki, N., Hara-Nishimura, I., Nagatani, A. Plant J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Biochemical characterization of plasma membrane H+-ATPase activation in guard cell protoplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana in response to blue light. Ueno, K., Kinoshita, T., Inoue, S., Emi, T., Shimazaki, K. Plant Cell Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Arabidopsis nph1 and npl1: blue light receptors that mediate both phototropism and chloroplast relocation. Sakai, T., Kagawa, T., Kasahara, M., Swartz, T.E., Christie, J.M., Briggs, W.R., Wada, M., Okada, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Phototropin LOV domains exhibit distinct roles in regulating photoreceptor function. Christie, J.M., Swartz, T.E., Bogomolni, R.A., Briggs, W.R. Plant J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Phototropin blue light receptors and light-induced movement responses in plants. Lin, C. Sci. STKE (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. From The Cover: A role for Arabidopsis cryptochromes and COP1 in the regulation of stomatal opening. Mao, J., Zhang, Y.C., Sang, Y., Li, Q.H., Yang, H.Q. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. An auxilin-like J-domain protein, JAC1, regulates phototropin-mediated chloroplast movement in Arabidopsis. Suetsugu, N., Kagawa, T., Wada, M. Plant Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Use of confocal laser as light source reveals stomata-autonomous function. Ca??amero, R.C., Boccalandro, H., Casal, J., Serna, L. PLoS ONE (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. RPT2 is a signal transducer involved in phototropic response and stomatal opening by association with phototropin 1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Inada, S., Ohgishi, M., Mayama, T., Okada, K., Sakai, T. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Rice NPH1 homologues, OsNPH1a and OsNPH1b, are differently photoregulated. Kanegae, H., Tahir, M., Savazzini, F., Yamamoto, K., Yano, M., Sasaki, T., Kanegae, T., Wada, M., Takano, M. Plant Cell Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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