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Gene Review

ZWI  -  kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein...

Arabidopsis thaliana

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Disease relevance of ZWI


High impact information on ZWI

  • These results suggest that KIC modulates the activity of KCBP in response to changes in cytosolic Ca2+ and regulates trichome morphogenesis [2].
  • Overexpression of KIC in Arabidopsis resulted in trichomes with reduced branch number resembling the zwichel/kcbp phenotype [2].
  • This screening resulted in the isolation of a novel KCBP-interacting Ca2+ binding protein (KIC) [2].
  • Two KIC-related Ca2+ binding proteins and a centrin from Arabidopsis, which contain one and four EF-hand motifs, respectively, bound Ca2+ but did not affect microtubule binding and microtubule-stimulated ATPase activities of KCBP, indicating the specificity of Ca2+ sensors in regulating their targets [2].
  • However, the interaction of the N-terminal tail region of the KCBP with microtubules was insensitive to ATP [3].

Biological context of ZWI

  • Functional studies with ZWICHEL ( ZWI ), which encodes a Ca(2+)-calmodulin-regulated kinesin, have shown its involvement in trichome morphogenesis and cell division [4].
  • The absence of CHY1 transcripts in the chy1-2 mutant did not alter either ZWI expression or ZWI-mediated trichome morphogenesis [4].
  • Thus, our data suggest that the 3' part of the CHY1 gene contains regulatory elements that control ZWI gene expression in dividing cells and other cells that exhibit polarized growth such as root hairs, pollen and trichomes [4].
  • To identify regulatory regions that control the ZWI expression pattern, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants with a GUS reporter driven by different lengths of the ZWI gene 5' region alone or 5' and 3' regions together [4].
  • The analysis of double mutants showed that although the expression of the dis phenotype is generally independent of branching and endoreduplication, dis mutations act synthetically in combination lesions in the ZWI gene, which encodes a kinesin motor protein [5].

Anatomical context of ZWI

  • The recent identification of one of these genes, ZWICHEL (ZWI), as a novel member of the kinesin superfamily of microtubule motors provides a starting point for the analysis of the plant cytoskeleton's role in a specific morphogenetic event [6].
  • A normal actin cytoskeleton was also observed in trichomes of the zwichel mutant which have reduced branching [7].
  • The KCBP is coded by a single gene and is highly expressed in developing flowers and suspension cultured cells [8].

Associations of ZWI with chemical compounds

  • Outside the motor domain, the KCBP has no sequence similarity with any of the known kinesins, but contains a globular domain in the NH2 terminus and a putative coiled-coil region in the middle [8].

Regulatory relationships of ZWI


Other interactions of ZWI


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ZWI


  1. Ca2+/calmodulin regulation of the Arabidopsis kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein. Deavours, B.E., Reddy, A.S., Walker, R.A. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. KIC, a novel Ca2+ binding protein with one EF-hand motif, interacts with a microtubule motor protein and regulates trichome morphogenesis. Reddy, V.S., Day, I.S., Thomas, T., Reddy, A.S. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Characterization of microtubule binding domains in the Arabidopsis kinesin-like calmodulin binding protein. Narasimhulu, S.B., Reddy, A.S. Plant Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Developmental and cell-specific expression of ZWICHEL is regulated by the intron and exon sequences of its gene. Reddy, V.S., Reddy, A.S. Plant Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Regulation of cell expansion by the DISTORTED genes in Arabidopsis thaliana: actin controls the spatial organization of microtubules. Schwab, B., Mathur, J., Saedler, R., Schwarz, H., Frey, B., Scheidegger, C., Hülskamp, M. Mol. Genet. Genomics (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Genetics of plant cell shape. Oppenheimer, D.G. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. The actin cytoskeleton is required to elaborate and maintain spatial patterning during trichome cell morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mathur, J., Spielhofer, P., Kost, B., Chua, N. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. A novel plant calmodulin-binding protein with a kinesin heavy chain motor domain. Reddy, A.S., Safadi, F., Narasimhulu, S.B., Golovkin, M., Hu, X. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. In vitro motility of AtKCBP, a calmodulin-binding kinesin protein of Arabidopsis. Song, H., Golovkin, M., Reddy, A.S., Endow, S.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Extragenic suppressors of the arabidopsis zwi-3 mutation identify new genes that function in trichome branch formation and pollen tube growth. Krishnakumar, S., Oppenheimer, D.G. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Trichome morphogenesis: a cell-cycle perspective. Schnittger, A., Hülskamp, M. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Localization of a kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein in dividing cells of Arabidopsis and tobacco. Bowser, J., Reddy, A.S. Plant J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Structural organization of a gene encoding a novel calmodulin-binding kinesin-like protein from Arabidopsis. Reddy, A.S., Narasimhulu, S.B., Day, I.S. Gene (1997) [Pubmed]
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