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Gene Review

MYO4  -  myosin 4

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: FUN22, Myosin-4, SHE1, SWI5-dependent HO expression protein 1, YAL029C
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High impact information on MYO4


Biological context of MYO4

  • The amino acid sequence of CaMYO2 shows 60% identity and 77% homology with MYO2 and 54% identity and 70% homology with MYO4 of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting that CaMYO2 is the only class V myosin in C. albicans [5].
  • To identify additional localized mRNAs, we immunoprecipitated the RNA transport components She2p, She3p, and Myo4p and performed DNA microarray analysis of their associated RNAs [6].
  • Alterations of MYO4 or MYO2 indicate that neither the motor domains nor tails of these myosins are required to confer the overexpression phenotype, whereas the neck region may be required [7].
  • However, overexpression of MYO4 or MYO2 results in several morphological abnormalities, including the formation of short strings of unseparated cells in diploid strains, or clusters of cells in haploid strains [7].

Anatomical context of MYO4

  • Subcellular fractionation experiments demonstrate a cosegregation of ER and She2p, which is independent of Myo4p, She3p, or polysomes [8].
  • Myo2p and Myo4p constitute respective class V myosins as the heavy chain and, like class V myosins in other organisms, function as actin-based motors for polarized distribution of organelles and intracellular molecules [9].

Other interactions of MYO4

  • Consistently, inhibition of nuclear mRNA export results in nuclear accumulation of She2p and cytoplasmic Myo4p mislocalization [10].
  • The yeast class V myosins, Myo2p and Myo4p, are nonprocessive actin-based motors [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MYO4

  • Video microscopy demonstrated that She1p/Myo4p moved particles to the bud tip at 200-440 nm/sec [12].
  • A phylogenetic tree was constructed from a sequence alignment by the neighbor-joining method, using Megalign (DNAStar, Madison, WI); the resulting phylogenetic tree showed that squid MyoV is more closely related to vertebrate MyoV (mouse dilute, chicken dilute, rat myr6, and human myo5a) than Drosophila and yeast (myo2, and myo4) myosins V [13].


  1. Mother cell-specific HO expression in budding yeast depends on the unconventional myosin myo4p and other cytoplasmic proteins. Jansen, R.P., Dowzer, C., Michaelis, C., Galova, M., Nasmyth, K. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Asymmetric accumulation of Ash1p in postanaphase nuclei depends on a myosin and restricts yeast mating-type switching to mother cells. Bobola, N., Jansen, R.P., Shin, T.H., Nasmyth, K. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Mechanisms of polarized growth and organelle segregation in yeast. Pruyne, D., Legesse-Miller, A., Gao, L., Dong, Y., Bretscher, A. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. The Khd1 protein, which has three KH RNA-binding motifs, is required for proper localization of ASH1 mRNA in yeast. Irie, K., Tadauchi, T., Takizawa, P.A., Vale, R.D., Matsumoto, K., Herskowitz, I. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. MYO2 is not essential for viability, but is required for polarized growth and dimorphic switches in Candida albicans. Woo, M., Lee, K., Song, K. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Widespread cytoplasmic mRNA transport in yeast: identification of 22 bud-localized transcripts using DNA microarray analysis. Shepard, K.A., Gerber, A.P., Jambhekar, A., Takizawa, P.A., Brown, P.O., Herschlag, D., DeRisi, J.L., Vale, R.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification of MYO4, a second class V myosin gene in yeast. Haarer, B.K., Petzold, A., Lillie, S.H., Brown, S.S. J. Cell. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Coordination of endoplasmic reticulum and mRNA localization to the yeast bud. Schmid, M., Jaedicke, A., Du, T.G., Jansen, R.P. Curr. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Polarized distribution of intracellular components by class V myosins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Matsui, Y. Int. Rev. Cytol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Ribonucleoprotein-dependent localization of the yeast class V myosin Myo4p. Kruse, C., Jaedicke, A., Beaudouin, J., Bohl, F., Ferring, D., Guttler, T., Ellenberg, J., Jansen, R.P. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. The yeast class V myosins, Myo2p and Myo4p, are nonprocessive actin-based motors. Reck-Peterson, S.L., Tyska, M.J., Novick, P.J., Mooseker, M.S. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Localization of ASH1 mRNA particles in living yeast. Bertrand, E., Chartrand, P., Schaefer, M., Shenoy, S.M., Singer, R.H., Long, R.M. Mol. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of squid myosin-V: a vesicle motor in nerve cells. Molyneaux, B.J., Mulcahey, M.K., Stafford, P., Langford, G.M. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton (2000) [Pubmed]
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