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Gene Review

PAP2  -  non-canonical poly(A) polymerase PAP2

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: DNA polymerase kappa, DNA polymerase sigma, HRC584, O0716, Poly(A) RNA polymerase protein 2, ...
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High impact information on PAP2

  • Whereas deletion of TRF4 leads to stabilization of tRNA(i)(Met), overexpression of Trf4p destabilizes the hypomodified tRNA(i)(Met) in trm6 cells [1].
  • These data indicate that a tRNA surveillance pathway exists in yeast that requires Trf4p and the exosome for polyadenylation and degradation of hypomodified pre-tRNA(i)(Met) [1].
  • A second suppressor gene encodes Trf4p, a DNA polymerase (pol sigma) with poly(A) polymerase activity [1].
  • These data indicate that TOP1 (encoding topo I) and TRF4 participate in overlapping or dependent steps in mitotic chromosome condensation and serve to define a previously unrecognized biological function of topo I [2].
  • We show that the Trf4p associates physically with both Smclp and Smc2p, the S. cerevisiae homologs of Xenopus proteins that are required for mitotic chromosome condensation in vitro [2].

Biological context of PAP2

  • Examination of nuclear morphology in a trf4 (ts) trf5 mutant at a restrictive temperature reveals the presence of many cells undergoing aberrant nuclear division, as well as many anucleate cells, demonstrating that the TRF4/5 function is required for proper mitosis [3].
  • We also show that trf5 Delta mutants, like trf4 Delta mutants, are defective in DNA repair and sister chromatid cohesion [4].
  • Since Trf4 is required for sister chromatid cohesion as well as for completion of S phase and repair, the interaction suggested that Pol epsilon, like Pol sigma, might form a link between the replication apparatus and sister chromatid cohesion and/or repair machinery [4].
  • Contribution of Trf4/5 and the Nuclear Exosome to Genome Stability Through Regulation of Histone mRNA Levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [5].
  • Suggesting that increased histone levels account for the phenotypes of trf mutants, we find that TRF4 shows synthetic genetic interactions with genes that negatively regulate histone levels, including RAD53 [5].

Associations of PAP2 with chemical compounds

  • A trf4 (ts) trf5 double mutant is hypersensitive to the anti-microtubule agent thiabendazole at a semi-permissive temperature, suggesting that TRF4/5 function is required at the time of mitosis [3].
  • Analyses of mutants carrying 1 of 34 "surface-targeted" alanine scanning mutations in TRF4 have identified those regions required for Pol sigma's essential function, for its role in DNA double-strand break repair, and for its association with chromosomes [6].

Physical interactions of PAP2


Other interactions of PAP2

  • Here we describe the isolation of a second member of the TRF4 gene family, TRF5 [3].
  • These results define a rapid tRNA degradation (RTD) pathway that is independent of the TRF4/RRP6-dependent nuclear surveillance pathway [7].
  • Recent analyses have shown that the activity of the yeast nuclear exosome is stimulated by the Trf4p-Air1/2p-Mtr4p polyadenylation (TRAMP) complex [8].
  • Disruption and functional analysis of six ORFs on chromosome XV: YOL117w, YOL115w ( TRF4), YOL114c, YOL112w ( MSB4), YOL111c and YOL072w [9].
  • Among these loci, we found one encoding a new C/D box small nucleolar RNA, as well as a surprising number that gave rise to heterogeneous Trf4p-polyadenylated RNAs with lengths of approximately 250-500 nt [10].


  1. Nuclear surveillance and degradation of hypomodified initiator tRNAMet in S. cerevisiae. Kadaba, S., Krueger, A., Trice, T., Krecic, A.M., Hinnebusch, A.G., Anderson, J. Genes Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Mitotic chromosome condensation in the rDNA requires TRF4 and DNA topoisomerase I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Castaño, I.B., Brzoska, P.M., Sadoff, B.U., Chen, H., Christman, M.F. Genes Dev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. A novel family of TRF (DNA topoisomerase I-related function) genes required for proper nuclear segregation. Castaño, I.B., Heath-Pagliuso, S., Sadoff, B.U., Fitzhugh, D.J., Christman, M.F. Nucleic Acids Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerase epsilon and polymerase sigma interact physically and functionally, suggesting a role for polymerase epsilon in sister chromatid cohesion. Edwards, S., Li, C.M., Levy, D.L., Brown, J., Snow, P.M., Campbell, J.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Contribution of Trf4/5 and the Nuclear Exosome to Genome Stability Through Regulation of Histone mRNA Levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Reis, C.C., Campbell, J.L. Genetics (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Structure/function analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Trf4/Pol sigma DNA polymerase. Wang, Z., Castaño, I.B., Adams, C., Vu, C., Fitzhugh, D., Christman, M.F. Genetics (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Rapid tRNA decay can result from lack of nonessential modifications. Alexandrov, A., Chernyakov, I., Gu, W., Hiley, S.L., Hughes, T.R., Grayhack, E.J., Phizicky, E.M. Mol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Yeast Trf5p is a nuclear poly(A) polymerase. Houseley, J., Tollervey, D. EMBO Rep. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Disruption and functional analysis of six ORFs on chromosome XV: YOL117w, YOL115w ( TRF4), YOL114c, YOL112w ( MSB4), YOL111c and YOL072w. Iwanejko, L., Smith, K.N., Loeillet, S., Nicolas, A., Fabre, F. Yeast (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Accumulation of unstable promoter-associated transcripts upon loss of the nuclear exosome subunit Rrp6p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Davis, C.A., Ares, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
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