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Gene Review

KRE1  -  Kre1p

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: Killer toxin-resistance protein 1, N0336, Protein KRE1, YNL322C
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Disease relevance of KRE1


High impact information on KRE1

  • Kre1p, the plasma membrane receptor for the yeast K1 viral toxin [2].
  • Toxin binding to spheroplasts is mediated by Kre1p, a cell wall protein initially attached to the plasma membrane by its C-terminal GPI anchor [2].
  • Gene disruption of the KRE1 locus leads to a 40% reduced level of cell wall (1----6)-beta-glucan [3].
  • The Saccharomyces cerevisiae KRE1 gene encodes a Ser/Thr-rich protein, that is directed into the yeast secretory pathway, where it is highly modified, probably through addition of O-linked mannose residues [3].
  • The strong genetic interactions of CWH41 with KRE6 and KRE1, two other genes involved in the beta-1,6-glucan biosynthetic pathway, disappear in the absence of dolichol-P-glucose synthase (alg5Delta) [4].

Biological context of KRE1


Anatomical context of KRE1

  • Indirect immunoflurorescence demonstrates that Kre1p localizes to the cell surface, where it becomes concentrated at the surface of mother cells [6].
  • Expression of K28-Kre1p, an inactive C-terminal fragment of Kre1p retaining its toxin affinity and membrane anchor, fully restored toxin binding and sensitivity to spheroplasts, while intact cells remained resistant [2].

Associations of KRE1 with chemical compounds

  • The KRE1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sacKRE1, appears to be involved in the synthesis of cell wall beta-glucan [7].
  • A comparison between planktonic and biofilm populations of transcript abundance for genes coding for enzymes in the ergosterol (ERG1, -3, -5, -6, -9, -11, and -25) and beta-1,6-glucan (SKN and KRE1, -5, -6, and -9) pathways was performed by quantitative RT-PCR [8].

Other interactions of KRE1

  • MUQ1 and KRE1, encoding proteins associated with cell surface maintenance, were also detected [9].
  • A functional, epitope-tagged Kre1p is shown to be highly modified in a SEC53-dependent manner [6].
  • Such a localization of Kre1p seems to parallel the CAL1/CSD2-dependent cell wall deposition of chitin found in S. cerevisiae, and is consistent with evidence from Schizophyllum commune that (1-->6)-beta-glucan accumulates during maturation of the subapical region of the wall distal to the hyphal tip [6].
  • In the case of Kre1/EstA/Flo1p, in vivo maturation within the yeast secretory pathway and final incorporation into the wall were further enhanced when there was constitutive activation of the unfolded protein response pathway [1].
  • In a yeast gpi1 mutant, a green-fluorescent-protein-tagged Kre1p derivative is secreted into the medium, indicating an at least transient GPI-anchoring stage of Kre1p during its processing within the yeast secretory pathway [10].


  1. Cell Surface Expression of Bacterial Esterase A by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Its Enhancement by Constitutive Activation of the Cellular Unfolded Protein Response. Breinig, F., Diehl, B., Rau, S., Zimmer, C., Schwab, H., Schmitt, M.J. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Kre1p, the plasma membrane receptor for the yeast K1 viral toxin. Breinig, F., Tipper, D.J., Schmitt, M.J. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Yeast KRE genes provide evidence for a pathway of cell wall beta-glucan assembly. Boone, C., Sommer, S.S., Hensel, A., Bussey, H. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. The role of glucosidase I (Cwh41p) in the biosynthesis of cell wall beta-1,6-glucan is indirect. Abeijon, C., Chen, L.Y. Mol. Biol. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Sequencing analysis of a 15.4 kb fragment of yeast chromosome XIV identifies the RPD3, PAS8 and KRE1 loci, five new open reading frames. Maftahi, M., Nicaud, J.M., Levesque, H., Gaillardin, C. Yeast (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Yeast Kre1p is a cell surface O-glycoprotein. Roemer, T., Bussey, H. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Isolation from Candida albicans of a functional homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae KRE1 gene, which is involved in cell wall beta-glucan synthesis. Boone, C., Sdicu, A., Laroche, M., Bussey, H. J. Bacteriol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. A Small Subpopulation of Blastospores in Candida albicans Biofilms Exhibit Resistance to Amphotericin B Associated with Differential Regulation of Ergosterol and {beta}-1,6-Glucan Pathway Genes. Khot, P.D., Suci, P.A., Miller, R.L., Nelson, R.D., Tyler, B.J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Screening of genes involved in isooctane tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using mRNA differential display. Miura, S., Zou, W., Ueda, M., Tanaka, A. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Yeast Kre1p is GPI-anchored and involved in both cell wall assembly and architecture. Breinig, F., Schleinkofer, K., Schmitt, M.J. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2004) [Pubmed]
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