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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Spheroplasts


High impact information on Spheroplasts

  • Toxin binding to spheroplasts is mediated by Kre1p, a cell wall protein initially attached to the plasma membrane by its C-terminal GPI anchor [6].
  • We show here that the SIR3 and SIR4 gene products have a sub-nuclear localization similar to the telomere-associated RAP1 protein, which is found primarily in foci at the nuclear periphery of fixed yeast spheroplasts [7].
  • We isolated cell envelopes by treating whole bacterial cells with lysozyme and EDTA to convert them to spheroplasts, then lysing the spheroplasts osmotically or sonically [8].
  • The major outer membrane lipoprotein (Lpp) expressed in spheroplasts was, however, retained in the inner membrane as a mature form [9].
  • The proportion of CDC28 gene product associated with the particulate fraction, and perhaps the insoluble matrix, appears to be substantially decreased during the preparation of spheroplasts [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Spheroplasts


Biological context of Spheroplasts


Anatomical context of Spheroplasts

  • Clathrin-coated vesicles were found in yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and enriched from spheroplasts by a rapid procedure utilizing gel filtration on Sephacryl S-1000 [21].
  • The secretion of beta-lactamase (EC into the periplasm of Escherichia coli has been followed by pulse-chase labeling at 15 degrees C. Though the periplasmic fraction contains only the mature form of the enzyme, the spheroplast fraction contains the completed precursor and a hitherto undocumented processed form [22].
  • R. sphaeroides responds to hyperosmotic stress by increasing the amount of cardiolipin in the membranes; this phenomenon occurs in spheroplasts also [23].
  • The binding affinities of various mutant insulin analogues correlated well with their capacities to activate glycogen synthase and SNF1 kinase in glucose-induced yeast spheroplasts, the ranking of their relative efficacies in yeast and in isolated rat adipocytes being similar [24].
  • Cell walls were digested by treatment with lyticase followed by concanavalin A coating of spheroplasts. alpha-Methylmannoside treatment after lysis, sonication at high salt concentration, and fractionation on a Renografin gradient resulted in two highly purified membrane fractions sedimenting at densities of 1.15 and 1.17 g/cm3 [25].

Associations of Spheroplasts with chemical compounds

  • Processing can be restored in CCCP-treated cells and in valinomycin-treated spheroplasts by dilution of the treated cells in fresh medium [16].
  • The addition of 11-cis-retinal to either cell spheroplasts or lysed cells showed that a fraction (2-4%) of the total expressed opsin reconstituted to rhodopsin [26].
  • When incubated with unlabeled spheroplasts, the lipolytically cleaved intermediate prepared in vitro is converted into the version lacking all anchor constituents, whereby the anchor glycan is apparently removed as a whole [27].
  • Spheroplasts expressing wild-type Mdr3 (Ser-939) exhibit an ATP-dependent and verapamil-sensitive decreased accumulation of [3H]vinblastine as compared with spheroplasts expressing a mutant form of Mdr3 with impaired transport activity (Phe-939) [28].
  • Spheroplasts obtained from cells grown under low iron conditions also displayed an iron-dependent increase in O2 consumption [29].

Gene context of Spheroplasts

  • When Nic96p was affinity purified from glutaraldehyde-treated spheroplasts, it was found to be associated with Mlp2p [30].
  • Metabolic reactivation (incubating spheroplasts with galactose and casamino acids) causes disruption of nucleosomes from the upstream regions of the yeast GAL1, GAL10, and GAL80 genes [31].
  • In contrast, deletion of the gene (PDA1) encoding the E1alpha subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase did not affect the spheroplast respiratory rate on pyruvate but abolished the malate-dependent respiration of isolated mitochondria [32].
  • Approximately 2.5 +/- 0.07 and 5.7 +/- 0.6 single-strand breaks per 10(8) daltons were detected in DNAs from either CDC9 or cdc9-9 cells converted to spheroplasts immediately after 10 and 25 krads of irradiation, respectively [33].
  • First, conversion of cells to spheroplasts with lyticase, a prerequisite for nuclear runoff transcription, induces the expression of HSP70 and HSP90 heat shock genes [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Spheroplasts


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