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Gene Review

CHS3  -  chitin synthase CHS3

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: CAL1, CSD2, Chitin synthase 3, Chitin-UDP acetyl-glucosaminyl transferase 3, Class-IV chitin synthase 3, ...
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Disease relevance of CHS3


High impact information on CHS3


Biological context of CHS3

  • Deletion of the CHS3 gene severely compromised the phenotype of gas1 cells, despite the fact that CSIII activity, assayed in membrane fractions, did not change [5].
  • Chs4p does not act as a transcriptional or translational regulator of CHS3, the gene coding for the catalytic subunit of CSIII activity, and we therefore propose that Chs4p would be an essential component of the CSIII complex, acting as a post-translational regulator of this activity [6].
  • Chitin septum biogenesis is catalyzed by two distinct chitin synthase activities encoded by the CHS2 and CHS3 genes [7].
  • In addition to finding, not surprisingly, that mutations in major cell wall-related genes such as FKS1 (glucan synthase) and mutations in any of the Golgi glycosylation complex genes (MNN9 family) are lethal in combination with chs3Delta, we found that a mutation in Srv2p, a bifunctional regulatory gene, is notably lethal in the chs3 deletion [8].
  • The three chitin synthases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Chs1, Chs2, and Chs3, participate in septum and cell wall formation of vegetative cells and in wall morphogenesis of conjugating cells and spores [9].

Anatomical context of CHS3


Associations of CHS3 with chemical compounds

  • BACKGROUND: In S. cerevisiae the beta-1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine polymer, chitin, is synthesized by a family of 3 specialized but interacting chitin synthases encoded by CHS1, CHS2 and CHS3 [15].
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the polysaccharide chitin is deposited at the mother bud junction by an integral membrane enzyme, chitin synthase 3 (Chs3p) [12].
  • No increase in chitin synthase 3 (Chs3) activity in bgl2Delta cells was observed, while they became more sensitive to Nikkomycin Z [10].
  • Alanine substitutions for the conserved amino acids in con2 identified five amino acids, Asn797, His799, Asp800, Trp803, and Thr805, the mutation of which severely diminished enzymatic activity and the enzyme's ability to rescue the yeast chs2 delta chs3 delta null mutant strain [16].
  • Mutant dit101, however, was additionally lacking the chitosan layer of the spore wall [17].

Co-localisations of CHS3


Regulatory relationships of CHS3


Other interactions of CHS3

  • We screened Saccharomyces strains for mutants that are synthetically lethal with deletion of the major chitin synthase gene CHS3 [8].
  • However, chs5 cells produce more chitin than chs3 mutants, indicating that CHS5 plays a role in other processes besides chitin synthesis [23].
  • CHS3 expression was not affected in the gas1 mutant [5].
  • However, the amount of DIT101 transcript changed significantly at different stages of the mitotic cell cycle, peaking after septum formation, but before cytokinesis [17].
  • Finally, immunofluorescence experiments reveal that in small-budded cells, sbe2 sbe22 mutants mislocalize Chs3p, a protein involved in chitin synthesis [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CHS3


  1. Molecular analysis of Chs3p participation in chitin synthase III activity. Cos, T., Ford, R.A., Trilla, J.A., Duran, A., Cabib, E., Roncero, C. Eur. J. Biochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Arf1p, Chs5p and the ChAPs are required for export of specialized cargo from the Golgi. Trautwein, M., Schindler, C., Gauss, R., Dengjel, J., Hartmann, E., Spang, A. EMBO J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Chs7p, a new protein involved in the control of protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum that is specifically engaged in the regulation of chitin synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Trilla, J.A., Durán, A., Roncero, C. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. A septin-based hierarchy of proteins required for localized deposition of chitin in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall. DeMarini, D.J., Adams, A.E., Fares, H., De Virgilio, C., Valle, G., Chuang, J.S., Pringle, J.R. J. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Chitin synthesis in a gas1 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Valdivieso, M.H., Ferrario, L., Vai, M., Duran, A., Popolo, L. J. Bacteriol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Characterization of CHS4 (CAL2), a gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in chitin biosynthesis and allelic to SKT5 and CSD4. Trilla, J.A., Cos, T., Duran, A., Roncero, C. Yeast (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Role for lipid signaling and the cell integrity MAP kinase cascade in yeast septum biogenesis. Tahirovic, S., Schorr, M., Then, A., Berger, J., Schwarz, H., Mayinger, P. Curr. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Chitin synthase III: synthetic lethal mutants and "stress related" chitin synthesis that bypasses the CSD3/CHS6 localization pathway. Osmond, B.C., Specht, C.A., Robbins, P.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Are yeast chitin synthases regulated at the transcriptional or the posttranslational level? Choi, W.J., Santos, B., Durán, A., Cabib, E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Deletion of BGL2 results in an increased chitin level in the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kalebina, T.S., Farkas, V., Laurinavichiute, D.K., Gorlovoy, P.M., Fominov, G.V., Bartek, P., Kulaev, I.S. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Chitin synthase 3 from yeast has zymogenic properties that depend on both the CAL1 and the CAL3 genes. Choi, W.J., Sburlati, A., Cabib, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Chs5/6 Complex: A Multiprotein Complex That Interacts with and Conveys Chitin Synthase III from the Trans-Golgi Network to the Cell Surface. Sanchatjate, S., Schekman, R. Mol. Biol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Chs6p-dependent anterograde transport of Chs3p from the chitosome to the plasma membrane in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ziman, M., Chuang, J.S., Tsung, M., Hamamoto, S., Schekman, R. Mol. Biol. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Differential trafficking and timed localization of two chitin synthase proteins, Chs2p and Chs3p. Chuang, J.S., Schekman, R.W. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. An interactional network of genes involved in chitin synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Lesage, G., Shapiro, J., Specht, C.A., Sdicu, A.M., Ménard, P., Hussein, S., Tong, A.H., Boone, C., Bussey, H. BMC Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Mutational analysis of chitin synthase 2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Identification of additional amino acid residues involved in its catalytic activity. Yabe, T., Yamada-Okabe, T., Nakajima, T., Sudoh, M., Arisawa, M., Yamada-Okabe, H. Eur. J. Biochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. DIT101 (CSD2, CAL1), a cell cycle-regulated yeast gene required for synthesis of chitin in cell walls and chitosan in spore walls. Pammer, M., Briza, P., Ellinger, A., Schuster, T., Stucka, R., Feldmann, H., Breitenbach, M. Yeast (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sps1p regulates trafficking of enzymes required for spore wall synthesis. Iwamoto, M.A., Fairclough, S.R., Rudge, S.A., Engebrecht, J. Eukaryotic Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. The Candida albicans CHS4 gene complements a Saccharomyces cerevisiae skt5/chs4 mutation and is involved in chitin biosynthesis. Sudoh, M., Tatsuno, K., Ono, N., Ohta, A., Chibana, H., YamadaOkabe, H., Arisawa, M. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. The phosphoinositide phosphatase Sac1p controls trafficking of the yeast Chs3p chitin synthase. Schorr, M., Then, A., Tahirovic, S., Hug, N., Mayinger, P. Curr. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Ypt32p regulates the translocation of Chs3p from an internal pool to the plasma membrane. Ortiz, D., Novick, P.J. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Chitin synthase III requires Chs4p-dependent translocation of Chs3p into the plasma membrane. Reyes, A., Sanz, M., Duran, A., Roncero, C. J. Cell. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  23. CHS5, a gene involved in chitin synthesis and mating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Santos, B., Duran, A., Valdivieso, M.H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Sbe2p and sbe22p, two homologous Golgi proteins involved in yeast cell wall formation. Santos, B., Snyder, M. Mol. Biol. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. WdChs4p, a homolog of chitin synthase 3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, alone cannot support growth of Wangiella (Exophiala) dermatitidis at the temperature of infection. Wang, Z., Zheng, L., Hauser, M., Becker, J.M., Szaniszlo, P.J. Infect. Immun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. The yeast Chs4 protein stimulates the trypsin-sensitive activity of chitin synthase 3 through an apparent protein-protein interaction. Ono, N., Yabe, T., Sudoh, M., Nakajima, T., Yamada-Okabe, T., Arisawa, M., Yamada-Okabe, H. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2000) [Pubmed]
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