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Gene Review

SPT2  -  Spt2p

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: EXA1, Negative regulator of Ty transcription, Protein SPT2, SIN1, SPM2, ...
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Psychiatry related information on SPT2

  • Administration of NOS inhibitors and NO scavenger Hb increased the pain threshold capacity significantly, whereas NO donors SIN-1, SNP and NO precursor L-arginine were found to be hyperalgesic [1].

High impact information on SPT2

  • Deletion of the SIN1 gene, which codes for a DNA-binding protein that negatively regulates HO transcription, restores INO1 transcription and reduces the cold sensitivity of such strains [2].
  • Recruitment of mRNA cleavage/polyadenylation machinery by the yeast chromatin protein Sin1p/Spt2p [3].
  • This conclusion is based on the following findings: Sin1p/Spt2 frequently binds specifically downstream of many ORFs but almost always upstream of the first polyadenylation site [3].
  • Furthermore, using recombinant molecules in vitro, we show that the N terminal of SIN1 is sufficient to bind a portion of CDC23 consisting solely of tetratrico peptide repeats [4].
  • In an effort to understand the basis for these phenotypes, we employed the yeast two-hybrid system to identify proteins that interact with SIN1 in vivo [4].

Biological context of SPT2

  • We show here that several alleles carrying C-terminal deletions as well as point mutations in the C-terminal domain of the SPT2 protein exhibit a dominant suppressor phenotype [5].
  • We have cloned SIN1 and found that it is identical to the previously identified gene SPT2, mutations in which allow transcription from certain mutated regulatory regions [6].
  • Because sin1 mutants exhibit increased loss of chromosome III, SIN1 may also play a role in fidelity of chromosome segregation [6].
  • To assess the significance of this structural similarity and identify domains of SPT2 functionally important in the regulation of his4-912 delta, we have studied recessive and dominant spt2 mutations created by in vitro mutagenesis [5].
  • When the DNA sequence to which the protein complex binds is placed in a CYC1 promoter lacking a UAS (upstream activating sequence), it can serve as a weak UAS in a SIN1 dependent way [7].

Anatomical context of SPT2


Associations of SPT2 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of SPT2

  • SIN1 interacts with a protein that binds the URS1 region of the yeast HO gene [7].
  • Furthermore, we show, using recombinant molecules in vitro, that a short 27 amino acid sequence near the N-terminal of SIN1 is sufficient to bind SAP1 [13].

Regulatory relationships of SPT2

  • The ability of spt2 mutations to suppress the transcriptional interference caused by the delta promoter insertion his-4-912 delta correlates with an increase in wild-type HIS4 mRNA levels [5].
  • Characterization of a short unique sequence in the yeast HO gene promoter that regulates HO transcription in a SIN1 dependent manner [14].

Other interactions of SPT2

  • Addition of random DNA segments to a test promoter alters regulation by SIN1 in a manner similar to addition of a segment from the HO upstream region [6].
  • The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPT2 gene was identified by genetic screens for mutations which are suppressors of Ty and delta insertional mutations at the HIS4 locus [5].
  • The predicted SIN1/SPT2 protein has a distinctive amino acid composition (45% charged residues, 25% basic and 20% acidic) and has similarity to the mammalian HMG1 protein, a nonhistone component of chromatin [6].
  • We therefore attempted to walk to RAD4 from the neighboring SPT2 gene and obtained an integrating derivative of a plasmid isolated by Roeder et al [15].
  • Association of yeast SAP1, a novel member of the 'AAA' ATPase family of proteins, with the chromatin protein SIN1 [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SPT2

  • In addition, genome-wide and gene-specific chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses suggest that Spt2 is primarily associated with coding regions in a transcription-dependent fashion [16].
  • Sequence alignment of Sin1p/Spt2p homologues from 11 different yeast species showed conservation of several domains [9].
  • Reliability and sensitivity of the SPT1- and SPT2-based biosensors were good, but varied with the wastewater [17].


  1. Effect of centrally administered nitric oxide modulators in Brewer's yeast-induced nociception in rats. Sarma, J., Tandan, S.K., Hajare, S.W., Kumar, D., Raviprakash, V. Indian J. Exp. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. A functional interaction between the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II and the negative regulator SIN1. Peterson, C.L., Kruger, W., Herskowitz, I. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Recruitment of mRNA cleavage/polyadenylation machinery by the yeast chromatin protein Sin1p/Spt2p. Hershkovits, G., Bangio, H., Cohen, R., Katcoff, D.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Association of yeast SIN1 with the tetratrico peptide repeats of CDC23. Shpungin, S., Liberzon, A., Bangio, H., Yona, E., Katcoff, D.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Mutational and functional analysis of dominant SPT2 (SIN1) suppressor alleles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Lefebvre, L., Smith, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. A negative regulator of HO transcription, SIN1 (SPT2), is a nonspecific DNA-binding protein related to HMG1. Kruger, W., Herskowitz, I. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. SIN1 interacts with a protein that binds the URS1 region of the yeast HO gene. Katcoff, D.J., Yona, E., Hershkovits, G., Friedman, H., Cohen, Y., Dgany, O. Nucleic Acids Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. On-line detection of nitric oxide formation in liquid aqueous phase by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Mordvintcev, P., Mülsch, A., Busse, R., Vanin, A. Anal. Biochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Functional domains of the yeast chromatin protein Sin1p/Spt2p can bind four-way junction and crossing DNA structures. Novoseler, M., Hershkovits, G., Katcoff, D.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. NO accounts completely for the oxygenated nitrogen species generated by enzymic L-arginine oxygenation. Mülsch, A., Vanin, A., Mordvintcev, P., Hauschildt, S., Busse, R. Biochem. J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Sensitivity of the essential zinc-thiolate moiety of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase to hypochlorite and peroxynitrite. Crow, J.P., Beckman, J.S., McCord, J.M. Biochemistry (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Virulence of Sporothrix schenckii conidia and yeast cells, and their susceptibility to nitric oxide. Fernandes, K.S., Coelho, A.L., Lopes Bezerra, L.M., Barja-Fidalgo, C. Immunology (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Association of yeast SAP1, a novel member of the 'AAA' ATPase family of proteins, with the chromatin protein SIN1. Liberzon, A., Shpungin, S., Bangio, H., Yona, E., Katcoff, D.J. FEBS Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of a short unique sequence in the yeast HO gene promoter that regulates HO transcription in a SIN1 dependent manner. Yona, E., Bangio, H., Friedman, Y., Shpungin, S., Katcoff, D.J. FEBS Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. RAD4 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: molecular cloning and partial characterization of a gene that is inactivated in Escherichia coli. Fleer, R., Nicolet, C.M., Pure, G.A., Friedberg, E.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Evidence that Spt2/Sin1, an HMG-like factor, plays roles in transcription elongation, chromatin structure, and genome stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nourani, A., Robert, F., Winston, F. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Characterization of two novel yeast strains used in mediated biosensors for wastewater. Trosok, S.P., Luong, J.H., Juck, D.F., Driscoll, B.T. Can. J. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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