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Gene Review

phoR  -  sensory histidine kinase in two-component...

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK0394, JW0390, R1pho, nmpB, phoR1
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Disease relevance of phoR


High impact information on phoR

  • Footprinting of the bidirectional phoRP-phoU promoter region showed a 51 bp protected sequence that encompasses four direct repeat units, two of them with high similarity to the protected sequences in the pstS promoter [3].
  • By generating phoR mutants that were unable to express the Pho regulon, we were able to restore biofilm formation by P. aureofaciens in P(i)-limiting conditions [4].
  • Under phosphate starvation conditions, in the presence of IPTG, all strains containing mutated phoR genes showed alkaline phosphatase induction patterns similar to that of the wild-type strain, although the fully induced level was lower in the mutants [5].
  • In protease-accessibility experiments and by using phoR-phoA gene fusions, the topology of PhoR was investigated and the absence of a large periplasmic domain was confirmed [6].
  • Genes in the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli are positively regulated by the products of the phoB and phoR genes with limited phosphate, and negatively regulated by the product of the phoR gene with excess phosphate [7].

Biological context of phoR

  • Cultures of recBC sbcB (sbcC+) strains grow slowly, contain many inviable cells, and rapidly accumulate fast-growing variants due to mutation of sbcC. sbcC has been identified on recombinant plasmids and tentatively located by Tn1000 mutagenesis to a 0.9-kilobase DNA section between proC and phoR [8].
  • We present here the complete nucleotide sequence of the phoR gene [7].
  • Experiments with four precise phoR deletion mutants supported this hypothesis and suggested that this activity resides within the histidine phosphorylation domain [9].
  • The deduced amino acid sequence was significantly homologous with that of the Escherichia coli phoR gene product, which is the sensory element for the pho regulon [2].

Other interactions of phoR

  • Regulation of the pho regulon of Escherichia coli K-12. Cloning of the regulatory genes phoB and phoR and identification of their gene products [10].
  • Overexpression of ackA elevated the intracellular ATP concentration, an effect that might be related to activation of the phosphate regulon in the phoR phoM strain [11].
  • Transcription of the chromosomal asr was abolished in the presence of a phoB-phoR (a two-component regulatory system, controlling the pho regulon inducible by phosphate starvation) deletion mutant [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of phoR


  1. Regulation of the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli K-12: regulation and role of the regulatory gene phoR. Makino, K., Shinagawa, H., Nakata, A. J. Mol. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Nucleotide sequence of the Bacillus subtilis phoR gene. Seki, T., Yoshikawa, H., Takahashi, H., Saito, H. J. Bacteriol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Binding of PhoP to promoters of phosphate-regulated genes in Streptomyces coelicolor: identification of PHO boxes. Sola-Landa, A., Rodríguez-García, A., Franco-Domínguez, E., Martín, J.F. Mol. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression of the Pho regulon negatively regulates biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aureofaciens PA147-2. Monds, R.D., Silby, M.W., Mahanty, H.K. Mol. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. The cytoplasmic kinase domain of PhoR is sufficient for the low phosphate-inducible expression of pho regulon genes in Bacillus subtilis. Shi, L., Hulett, F.M. Mol. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Topology of the PhoR protein of Escherichia coli and functional analysis of internal deletion mutants. Scholten, M., Tommassen, J. Mol. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Nucleotide sequence of the phoR gene, a regulatory gene for the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli. Makino, K., Shinagawa, H., Amemura, M., Nakata, A. J. Mol. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification and genetic analysis of sbcC mutations in commonly used recBC sbcB strains of Escherichia coli K-12. Lloyd, R.G., Buckman, C. J. Bacteriol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. Genetic and biochemical studies of phosphatase activity of PhoR. Carmany, D.O., Hollingsworth, K., McCleary, W.R. J. Bacteriol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Regulation of the pho regulon of Escherichia coli K-12. Cloning of the regulatory genes phoB and phoR and identification of their gene products. Tommassen, J., de Geus, P., Lugtenberg, B., Hackett, J., Reeves, P. J. Mol. Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  11. Overproduction of acetate kinase activates the phosphate regulon in the absence of the phoR and phoM functions in Escherichia coli. Lee, T.Y., Makino, K., Shinagawa, H., Nakata, A. J. Bacteriol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. The acid-inducible asr gene in Escherichia coli: transcriptional control by the phoBR operon. Suziedeliené, E., Suziedélis, K., Garbenciūté, V., Normark, S. J. Bacteriol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Chemical heterogeneity of major outer membrane pore proteins of Escherichia coli. Lee, D.R., Schnaitman, C.A., Pugsley, A.P. J. Bacteriol. (1979) [Pubmed]
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