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Gene Review

PSMF1  -  proteasome (prosome, macropain) inhibitor...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: PI31, Proteasome inhibitor PI31 subunit, hPI31
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Disease relevance of PSMF1

  • For diabetics with some endogenous insulin reserve, the PSMF offers significant advantages for weight reduction, including preservation of lean body mass (as reflected in nitrogen balance) and withdrawal of exogenous insulin [1].
  • A protein-sparing modified fast (PSMF), which is a total fast modified by the intake of 1.2-1.4 gm. protein per kilogram ideal body weight (IBW), fluids ad libitum, and vitamin and mineral supplementation, allows effective control of carbohydrate metabolism and hunger [1].
  • These observations suggest a new approach to the treatment of severe obesity by PSMF and show that is is possible to further reduce the early catabolic phase which commonly arises during this type of therapy [2].
  • PSMF subjects reported significantly greater problems with cold intolerance, constipation, dizziness, dry skin, and fatigue [3].
  • In Study A, during subsequent weight gain on an unrestricted diet blood pressure was significantly higher than at identical weight during continuous weight loss on PSMF [4].

Psychiatry related information on PSMF1

  • Subjects were offered a protein-sparing modified fast (PSMF) diet (600-800 kcal/d; 2 g protein/kg body weight), followed by a balanced hypocaloric diet, and they participated in behavior-modification sessions and a moderate-intensity (45-55% volume of oxygen consumed at maximal effort [VO(2)max]), progressive exercise program [5].

High impact information on PSMF1


Chemical compound and disease context of PSMF1

  • Consumption of the PSMF diet by non-obese subjects, or obesity per se, caused major reductions in the ratio of the plasma Trp concentration to the summed plasma concentrations of the other LNAA (i.e., the "plasma Trp ratio"), and may thus have diminished brain serotonin synthesis [9].

Biological context of PSMF1

  • The results from this study indicate that the fall in RMR associated with a PSMF diet (weight loss) is not due to an acute adaptation to the lower energy intake [6].

Anatomical context of PSMF1

  • After treatment, no significant change was observed in sFe, sFert, and TSI of either group, whereas eZn increased significantly in the HCBD and the PSMF groups (p = 0.001 and p < 0.006, respectively), with an improvement of the erythrocyte index (E.I.). A significant increase in pZn was also observed in the PSMF group (p = 0.007) [10].

Associations of PSMF1 with chemical compounds

  • We measured plasma concentrations of tryptophan (Trp) and the other large neutral amino acids (LNAA) in 6 control and 7 obese subjects before and after they consumed a low-carbohydrate "protein-sparing modified fast" (PSMF) diet; LNAA levels in control subjects were also assessed after supplemental oral Trp [9].

Regulatory relationships of PSMF1

  • Equivalent mutations in Fbxo7 ablate interaction with PI31 and also block Fbxo7 homodimerization [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PSMF1

  • Ten obese adolescents consumed the protein-sparing modified fast (PSMF), a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet, for 92 +/- 19 d and lost 14.7 +/- 5.3 kg [12].


  1. Nitrogen metabolism and insulin requirements in obese diabetic adults on a protein-sparing modified fast. Bistrian, B.R., Blackburn, G.L., Flatt, J.P., Sizer, J., Scrimshaw, N.S., Sherman, M. Diabetes (1976) [Pubmed]
  2. Protein-sparing modified fast in the treatment of severe obesity: weight loss and nitrogen balance data. Contaldo, F., Di Biase, G., Scalfi, L., Presta, E., Mancini, M. International journal of obesity. (1980) [Pubmed]
  3. Less food, less hunger: reports of appetite and symptoms in a controlled study of a protein-sparing modified fast. Wadden, T.A., Stunkard, A.J., Day, S.C., Gould, R.A., Rubin, C.J. International journal of obesity. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Obesity and hypertension: long-term effects of weight reduction on blood pressure. Dornfeld, L.P., Maxwell, M.H., Waks, A.U., Schroth, P., Tuck, M.L. International journal of obesity. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Recent advances in the treatment of childhood obesity. Suskind, R.M., Blecker, U., Udall, J.N., von Almen, T.K., Schumacher, H.D., Carlisle, L., Sothern, M.S. Pediatric diabetes. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Short and long term effects of a very low calorie diet on resting metabolic rate and body composition. Vansant, G., Van Gaal, L., Van Acker, K., De Leeuw, I. International journal of obesity. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of a short-term (4 weeks) protein-sparing modified fast on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in obese women. Vermeulen, A. Ann. Nutr. Metab. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Changes in vitamin E status during obesity treatment. Vandewoude, M.G., Van Gaal, L., De Leeuw, I. Ann. Nutr. Metab. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. The treatment of obesity by carbohydrate deprivation suppresses plasma tryptophan and its ratio to other large neutral amino acids. Heraief, E., Burckhardt, P., Mauron, C., Wurtman, J.J., Wurtman, R.J. J. Neural Transm. (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. Unchanged iron and copper and increased zinc in the blood of obese children after two hypocaloric diets. Di Toro, A., Marotta, A., Todisco, N., Ponticiello, E., Collini, R., Di Lascio, R., Perrone, L. Biological trace element research. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Structure of a conserved dimerization domain within the F-box protein Fbxo7 and the PI31 proteasome inhibitor. Kirk, R., Laman, H., Knowles, P.P., Murray-Rust, J., Lomonosov, M., Meziane, E.K., McDonald, N.Q. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  12. Potassium, magnesium, and calcium balance in obese adolescents on a protein-sparing modified fast. Stallings, V.A., Archibald, E.H., Pencharz, P.B. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1988) [Pubmed]
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