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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Chyle

  • INTERVENTION: Patients with chylothorax were treated primarily with fat-free oral nutrition; if chyle did not stop, total parenteral nutrition with total enteric rest was started [1].
  • Treatment of the postoperative chyle fistula consists of elimination of long chain triglycerides from the diet and use of a medium chain triglyceride diet (Portagen), or oral feedings may be discontinued and intravenous fluids used exclusively [2].

High impact information on Chyle

  • Both triglyceride content and volume of chyle declined, but drainage persisted, ultimately requiring thoracic duct ligation [3].
  • Analysis of 3H and 14C in different molecular species of PI and PC in chyle and in serum indicated that there was no significant difference in disappearance rates between various species, stearoyl-arachidonyl PI thus disappearing at the same rate as total [3H]PI [4].
  • LPL and HL may, however, be of limited importance for the clearance of chyle PI in vivo, most of the chylomicron PI being transferred to HDL, and thereafter eliminated from plasma at a slow rate mainly by other mechanisms [4].
  • Most of the cholesterol in intestinal chyle and chylomicrons is derived from plasma [5].
  • Our aim was to determine how much plasma low density (LDL) and high density (HDL) lipoproteins contribute to the cholesterol in chyle and chylomicrons, and to examine how plasma cholesterol becomes associated with lymph chylomicrons [5].

Chemical compound and disease context of Chyle


Biological context of Chyle


Anatomical context of Chyle


Associations of Chyle with chemical compounds

  • Apart from reducing chyle output, octreotide decreased the triglyceride content of the pleural fluid [11].
  • In the chyle, triacylglycerol was the major lipid but X-1,2-diacyl-3-S-tetradecyl-3-thioglycerol-S-oxide constituted 8% of lipid weight [12].
  • The appearace of oleic acid with different labels in chyle and intestinal lipids did not differ, indicating the absence of stereospecificity in fat digestion [13].
  • Effects of chloroquine and colchicine on the degradation of chyle cholesteryl ester and phospholipids in vivo [14].
  • Chyle phospholipids contained largely endogenous fatty acids, and the proportion of lauric acid was very low [13].

Gene context of Chyle

  • The IGFBPs profile in chyle, especially IGFBP-3, was different from that of serum [15].
  • However, the size and relative amount of IGFBP-1 and -2 in chyle were similar to serum [15].
  • Letter: Simple test for chyle in the urine [16].
  • Thereafter, continuous somatostatin infusion for 14 days led to the reduction and finally cessation of chyle production [17].
  • The total amount of chyle ranged from 1.9 L to 27.9 L per patient with a mean of 7.9 L (pneumonectomy 12.3 L and lobectomy 6.3 L) [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Chyle


  1. Chylothorax in children: guidelines for diagnosis and management. Büttiker, V., Fanconi, S., Burger, R. Chest (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. "How I do it"--head and neck. A targeted problem and its solution. Chylous fistula prevention and management. Thawley, S.E. Laryngoscope (1980) [Pubmed]
  3. Dietary modification of chyle composition in chylothorax. Jensen, G.L., Mascioli, E.A., Meyer, L.P., Lopes, S.M., Bell, S.J., Babayan, V.K., Blackburn, G.L., Bistrian, B.R. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Metabolism of chylomicron phosphatidylinositol in the rat: fate in vivo and hydrolysis with lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase in vitro. Nilsson, A., Chen, Q., Dahlman, E. J. Lipid Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Cholesteryl esters in lymph chylomicrons: contribution from high density lipoprotein transferred from plasma into intestinal lymph. Oliveira, H.C., Nilausen, K., Meinertz, H., Quintão, E.C. J. Lipid Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Octreotide in the medical management of chyle fistula. Nyquist, G.G., Hagr, A., Sobol, S.E., Hier, M.P., Black, M.J. Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Role of platelet factor Xa in chylomicron-prothrombin complexes induced platelet activation. Xu, N., Zhou, L., Ohlin, A.K., Nilsson, A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Hydrolysis of chyle cholesterol esters with cell-free preparations of rat liver. Nilsson, A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1976) [Pubmed]
  9. Chylothorax in the neonatal period. van Straaten, H.L., Gerards, L.J., Krediet, T.G. Eur. J. Pediatr. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Bile but not chyle lipoprotein is an important source of arachidonic acid for the rat small intestine. Melin, T., Qi, C., Nilsson, A. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Octreotide for treatment of postoperative chylothorax. Cheung , Y., Leung, M.P., Yip , M. J. Pediatr. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Digestion and absorption of a sulphoxide analogue of triacylglycerol in the rat. Akesson, B., Michelsen, P. Chem. Phys. Lipids (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Absorption of synthetic, stereochemically defined acylglycerols in the rat. Akesson, B., Gronowitz, S., Herslof, B., Ohlson, R. Lipids (1978) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of chloroquine and colchicine on the degradation of chyle cholesteryl ester and phospholipids in vivo. Florén, C.H., Nordgren, H., Nilsson, A. Eur. J. Biochem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-binding protein in chylous ascites. Lee, D.Y. J. Korean Med. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Letter: Simple test for chyle in the urine. Amin, S. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  17. Treatment of a persistent postoperative chylothorax with somatostatin. Rimensberger, P.C., Müller-Schenker, B., Kalangos, A., Beghetti, M. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Chylothorax complicating pulmonary resection. Le Pimpec-Barthes, F., D'Attellis, N., Dujon, A., Legman, P., Riquet, M. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Peripheral parenteral nutrition in a case of chyle leak following neck dissection. Morris, S.A., Taylor, S.J. Journal of human nutrition and dietetics : the official journal of the British Dietetic Association. (2004) [Pubmed]
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