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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Parakeratosis


High impact information on Parakeratosis

  • In addition, CSB -/- mice develop marked parakeratosis, whereas XPC -/- mice and controls do not [2].
  • The addition of 1 microM 13-cis retinoic acid caused a significant reduction in the rate of DNA synthesis and apparent parakeratosis [3].
  • The addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to the culture caused the epidermis to become acanthotic with orthokeratosis, but with high concentrations of EGF (greater than or equal to 10 ng/ml) parakeratosis and increased proliferation of the epidermis occurred [4].
  • INV-AR mouse histopathology also revealed epidermal hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, acanthosis, and an exaggerated dermal vasculature [5].
  • The cell loss was compensated by hyperproliferation of the distal matrix and of the nail bed keratinocytes, with persistent marked parakeratosis and loose arrangement of keratin bundles [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of Parakeratosis

  • Simultaneous evaluation of CE maturity and parakeratosis was carried out by a combination of involucrin immunostaining and nuclear staining of detergent-dissociated corneocytes [7].
  • Axillary granular parakeratosis: response to isotretinoin [8].
  • Granular parakeratosis: resolution with topical tretinoin [9].
  • In a study of 25 oral biopsy specimens of lesions of chronic discoid lupus erythematosus, a characteristic and diagnostic histopathological pattern was confirmed, which consisted of parakeratosis, hydropic degeneration of stratum germinativum, collagen degeneration and a lymphocytic infiltration in a perivascular orientation [10].
  • The parakeratosis elicited by nonanoic acid showed cells with irregular membranes and nuclei with non-flattened and irregular borders [11].

Anatomical context of Parakeratosis


Gene context of Parakeratosis

  • The reactivities for both loricrin and loricrin mRNAs were abolished by a treatment of the cultures with a retinoic acid concentration (10(-6) M) provoking a complete inhibition of terminal epidermal differentiation (parakeratosis) [14].
  • In areas of mixed orthokeratosis and parakeratosis where the stratum corneum was greatly thickened as might correspond clinically to a cutaneous horn, SCCE staining was either absent or focally aggregated without regard to orthokeratosis or parakeratosis [15].
  • The Bethesda System categorizes atypical parakeratosis (APK) as "ASCUS or SIL depending on the degree of cellular abnormalities." APK, however, is not well-defined [16].
  • A total of 123 sera samples of porcine foetuses (n = 28), adult healthy pigs (n = 56), pigs with parakeratosis (n = 25) and pigs with ulceration of the pars oesophagea (n = 14) were tested [17].
  • Histologic examination of the tongue epithelium of the zinc-deficient rats showed a hypercellular prickle cell layer and a marked parakeratosis [18].


  1. Histologic and histochemical study of effects of anabolic steroids on the female larynx. Talaat, M., Talaat, A.M., Kelada, I., Angelo, A., Elwany, S., Thabet, H. The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Impact of global genome repair versus transcription-coupled repair on ultraviolet carcinogenesis in hairless mice. Berg, R.J., Rebel, H., van der Horst, G.T., van Kranen, H.J., Mullenders, L.H., van Vloten, W.A., de Gruijl, F.R. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Modeling acne in vitro. Guy, R., Green, M.R., Kealey, T. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Long-term organ culture of rabbit skin: effect of EGF on epidermal structure in vitro. Kondo, S., Hozumi, Y., Aso, K. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Suprabasal expression of human amphiregulin in the epidermis of transgenic mice induces a severe, early-onset, psoriasis-like skin pathology: expression of amphiregulin in the basal epidermis is also associated with synovitis. Cook, P.W., Brown, J.R., Cornell, K.A., Pittelkow, M.R. Exp. Dermatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Hereditary 'white nails': a genetic and structural study. Norgett, E.E., Wolf, F., Balme, B., Leigh, I.M., Perrot, H., Kelsell, D.P., Haftek, M. Br. J. Dermatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Ratio of immature cornified envelopes does not correlate with parakeratosis in inflammatory skin disorders. Hirao, T., Terui, T., Takeuchi, I., Kobayashi, H., Okada, M., Takahashi, M., Tagami, H. Exp. Dermatol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Axillary granular parakeratosis: response to isotretinoin. Webster, C.G., Resnik, K.S., Webster, G.F. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Granular parakeratosis: resolution with topical tretinoin. Brown, S.K., Heilman, E.R. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Histopathology of oral lesions of discoid lupus erythematosus. A review of 25 cases. Shklar, G., McCarthy, P.L. Archives of dermatology. (1978) [Pubmed]
  11. Corneocyte morphology and formation rate in lichen planus and experimental parakeratosis in subjects with and without psoriasis. Johannesson, A., Hammar, H. Acta Derm. Venereol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. Fine needle aspiration cytology of subareolar abscess of the breast. Spectrum of cytomorphologic findings and potential diagnostic pitfalls. Silverman, J.F., Lannin, D.R., Unverferth, M., Norris, H.T. Acta Cytol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Amyloid deposition is frequently observed in skin lesions of hypertrophic lupus erythematosus. Khan, M.A., Maruno, M., Khaskhely, N.M., Uezato, H., Nonaka, S. J. Dermatol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression of loricrin is negatively controlled by retinoic acid in human epidermis reconstructed in vitro. Magnaldo, T., Bernerd, F., Asselineau, D., Darmon, M. Differentiation (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression of stratum corneum chymotryptic enzyme in ichthyoses and squamoproliferative processes. Johnson, B., Horn, T., Sander, C., Kohler, S., R Smoller, B. J. Cutan. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Atypical parakeratosis: a marker of dysplasia? Voytek, T.M., Kannan, V., Kline, T.S. Diagn. Cytopathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Correlation between a proteolytic method and a radioimmunoassay for porcine serum pepsinogen concentrations. Sidikou, D.I., Banga-Mboko, H., Tamboura, H.H., Hornick, J.L., Remy, B., Beckers, J.F. Res. Vet. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. The effects of feeding a zinc-deficient diet on taste acuity and tongue epithelium in rats. Catalanotto, F.A., Nanda, R. J. Oral Pathol. (1977) [Pubmed]
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