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MeSH Review

Vaginal Douching

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Disease relevance of Vaginal Douching

  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between vaginal douching and sexually transmitted infections (STI) among a group of female sex workers (FSWs) in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: This study was part of a randomised, placebo controlled trial of monthly prophylaxis with 1 g of azithromycin to prevent STIs and HIV infection in a cohort of Nairobi FSWs [1].
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether chlorhexidine vaginal douching, applied by a squeeze bottle intra partum, reduced mother-to-child transmission of vaginal microorganisms including Streptococcus agalactiae (streptococcus serogroup B = GBS) and hence infectious morbidity in both mother and child [2].
  • Single hydrogen peroxide vaginal douching versus single-dose oral metronidazole for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis: a randomized controlled trial [3].

High impact information on Vaginal Douching

  • Concomitantly, concentrations of a functional IL-8 homologue, murine macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, were increased significantly in vaginal lavage fluid at metestrus-2 as compared with other phases [4].
  • Vaginal lavage with diluted chlorhexidine during delivery did not show a global effect on MTCT in our study [5].
  • The adjuvant combination of IL-1alpha, IL-12, and IL-18 induced anti-HIV peptide IgA titers of 1:1,176, 1:7,131, and 1:4,705 in saliva, fecal extracts and vaginal lavage, respectively [6].
  • Furthermore, CPMV- and FnBP-specific IgA and IgG could also be detected in the bronchial, intestinal, and vaginal lavage fluids, highlighting the ability of CVPs to generate antibody at distant mucosal sites [7].
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bacterial vaginosis and vaginal douching are both reported to be more common in African-American and Caribbean than white women [8].

Biological context of Vaginal Douching


Anatomical context of Vaginal Douching

  • Cervicovaginal secretion (CVS) from 56 heterosexual African women (19 to 45 years old), living in Bangui, Central African Republic, were evaluated for pH, semen components (prostatic acid phosphatase [PAP] and prostatic specific antigen [PSA]), cellularity, and hemoglobin at inclusion and after vaginal douching with 100 ml of water by using a bock [10].

Associations of Vaginal Douching with chemical compounds

  • Daily vaginal douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine in 12 euthyroid volunteers for 14 days resulted in a significant increase in serum total iodine concentration and urine iodine excretion [11].
  • In the second and third cycles, vaginal douching was performed with either 1.5% (w/v) NaHCO3 or 0.9% (w/v) NaCl (randomized procedure) [12].
  • Vaginal lavage attenuates cocaine-stimulated activity and establishes place preference in rats [13].
  • A sensitive normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method using a bonded-phase aminosilica column has been developed for the measurement of the spermicide nonoxynol-9 in vaginal lavage fluid [14].
  • Exfoliated cells were obtained by vaginal lavage 7--9 hours (pro-oestrus), 18--20 hours (oestrus), 28--34 hours (metoestrus) and 60--64 hours (dioestrus) after administration of luteinizing hormone [15].

Gene context of Vaginal Douching


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Vaginal Douching


  1. Sexually transmitted infections and vaginal douching in a population of female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya. Fonck, K., Kaul, R., Keli, F., Bwayo, J.J., Ngugi, E.N., Moses, S., Temmerman, M. Sexually transmitted infections. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Vaginal disinfection with chlorhexidine during childbirth. Stray-Pedersen, B., Bergan, T., Hafstad, A., Normann, E., Grøgaard, J., Vangdal, M. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Single hydrogen peroxide vaginal douching versus single-dose oral metronidazole for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis: a randomized controlled trial. Chaithongwongwatthana, S., Limpongsanurak, S., Sitthi-Amorn, C. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Physiologic regulation of postovulatory neutrophil migration into vagina in mice by a C-X-C chemokine(s). Sonoda, Y., Mukaida, N., Wang, J.B., Shimada-Hiratsuka, M., Naito, M., Kasahara, T., Harada, A., Inoue, M., Matsushima, K. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Vaginal lavage with chlorhexidine during labour to reduce mother-to-child HIV transmission: clinical trial in Mombasa, Kenya. Gaillard, P., Mwanyumba, F., Verhofstede, C., Claeys, P., Chohan, V., Goetghebeur, E., Mandaliya, K., Ndinya-Achola, J., Temmerman, M. AIDS (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Cytokines as adjuvants for the induction of anti-human immunodeficiency virus peptide immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies in serum and mucosal secretions after nasal immunization. Bradney, C.P., Sempowski, G.D., Liao, H.X., Haynes, B.F., Staats, H.F. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Chimeric plant virus particles administered nasally or orally induce systemic and mucosal immune responses in mice. Brennan, F.R., Bellaby, T., Helliwell, S.M., Jones, T.D., Kamstrup, S., Dalsgaard, K., Flock, J.I., Hamilton, W.D. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Bacterial vaginosis, ethnicity, and the use of genital cleaning agents: a case control study. Rajamanoharan, S., Low, N., Jones, S.B., Pozniak, A.L. Sexually transmitted diseases. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Epidemiology of HIV infection in the newborn. Thorne, C., Newell, M.L. Early Hum. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. In vivo semen-associated pH neutralization of cervicovaginal secretions. Tevi-Bénissan, C., Bélec, L., Lévy, M., Schneider-Fauveau, V., Si Mohamed, A., Hallouin, M.C., Matta, M., Grésenguet, G. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of chronic douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine on iodine absorption and thyroid function. Safran, M., Braverman, L.E. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. Improvement of cervical mucus viscoelasticity and sperm penetration with sodium bicarbonate douching. Everhardt, E., Dony, J.M., Jansen, H., Lemmens, W.A., Doesburg, W.H. Hum. Reprod. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Vaginal lavage attenuates cocaine-stimulated activity and establishes place preference in rats. Walker, Q.D., Nelson, C.J., Smith, D., Kuhn, C.M. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Determination of the spermicide nonoxynol-9 in vaginal lavage by high-performance liquid chromatography. McPherson, J.L., Nichols, J.H., Barditch-Crovo, P., Hamzeh, F.M. J. Chromatogr. B, Biomed. Appl. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Surface features of exfoliated vaginal epithelial cells during the oestrous cycle of the rat examined by scanning electron microscopy. Centola, G.M. J. Anat. (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. Relationship between a toll-like receptor-4 gene polymorphism, bacterial vaginosis-related flora and vaginal cytokine responses in pregnant women. Genc, M.R., Vardhana, S., Delaney, M.L., Onderdonk, A., Tuomala, R., Norwitz, E., Witkin, S.S. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Vaginal douching and the risk of tubal pregnancy. Daling, J.R., Weiss, N.S., Schwartz, S.M., Stergachis, A., Wang, S.P., Foy, H., Chu, J., McKnight, B., Grayston, J.T. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Transcutaneous immunization induces mucosal and systemic immunity: a potent method for targeting immunity to the female reproductive tract. Gockel, C.M., Bao, S., Beagley, K.W. Mol. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Vaginal douching practices among women attending a university in the southern United States. Funkhouser, E., Hayes, T.D., Vermund, S.H. Journal of American college health : J of ACH. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Vaginal douching. Pros, cons, and proper technique. Zbella, E.A., Nemec, L.A., Vermesh, M. Postgraduate medicine. (1984) [Pubmed]
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