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Gene Review

ACPP  -  acid phosphatase, prostate

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 5'-NT, 5'-nucleotidase, ACP-3, ACP3, Ecto-5'-nucleotidase, ...
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Disease relevance of ACPP

  • Human prostatic acid phosphatase (ACPP) has been used as a diagnostic marker for prostate cancer [1].
  • Expression of human prostatic acid phosphatase (ACPP) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) genes in prostatic carcinoma (CAP) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) was investigated by northern blot analyses [2].
  • The size of PAP mRNAs from benign prostate hyperplasia and cancerous prostate was estimated to be 3.2Kb, indicating that the 3' downstream polyadenylation signal was used [3].
  • In contrast, the highest sensitivity in newly detected carcinomas (n = 41) was obtained with PSA (71%), whereas that of GSM (51%) was comparable to that of PAP (44%) [4].
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether psychiatric disturbances, particularly somatization, and an increased number of traumatic and critical life events, which have been found in women with idiopathic chronic pelvic pain (ICPP), can also be observed in women with chronic pelvic pain and abdominal adhesions (ACPP) [5].
  • In well-differentiated human prostate cancer tissue specimens, the expression of secretory PAP, but not TM-PAP, is significantly decreased [6].

Psychiatry related information on ACPP

  • RESULTS: Diagnostic criteria for somatoform pain disorder were fullfilled in 73.3% of the ICPP patients, 60% of the ACPP patients and none of the controls [5].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because high somatization and high prevalence rates of abuse were not only found in patients suffering from ICPP but also in ACPP patients, it seems to be doubtful that the somatic pathology may fully explain the psychopathology in patients with ACPP [5].
  • The first is a 13-year-old Hispanic girl with severe RP, PAP, mental retardation and obesity (BMI >40) [7].
  • The measurement of transmural values allowed a reliable assessment of PAP changes occurring during apneas, and different degrees of such changes shown by different patients may be related to a host of factors relevant to wakefulness and sleep, including individual responsivity to hypoxic stimulus [8].
  • This review presents the possible involvement of 3'(2')-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphate (PAP) phosphatase in the etiology of bipolar disorder and the mechanism of action of Li [9].

High impact information on ACPP

  • Both the proband and her affected brother had RP, PAP, mild mental retardation, morbid obesity (BMI >50 and 37, respectively), lobulated kidneys with prominent calyces and diabetes mellitus (diagnosed at ages 33 and 30, respectively) [7].
  • We conclude that PSA is more sensitive than PAP in the detection of prostatic cancer and will probably be more useful in monitoring responses and recurrence after therapy [10].
  • PSA was increased in 86 percent and PAP in 14 percent of the patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia [10].
  • Monospecific rabbit antiserums to PAPP-A, PAPP-C and hCS all stained the trophoblast cytoplasm equivalently in a continuous layer, usggesting that the same trophoblast cells synthesize all three pregnancy proteins [11].
  • The antibody was found to be present in all specimens of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from 11 I-PAP patients but not in samples from 2 secondary PAP patients, 53 normal subjects, and 14 patients with other lung diseases [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of ACPP


Biological context of ACPP


Anatomical context of ACPP


Associations of ACPP with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of ACPP

  • All PSA assays were coupled with prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) measurements [26].

Enzymatic interactions of ACPP


Regulatory relationships of ACPP

  • PAP amidolytic activity was poorly inhibited by all currently used wide spectrum proteinase inhibitors [23].
  • The use of PSA and PAP jointly to detect and to monitor prostate cancer did not appear to enhance the clinical utility over that of PSA alone [28].

Other interactions of ACPP


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ACPP

  • All six of these patients developed T cell immunity to human PAP following vaccination [19].
  • Its localization pattern was also compared with those of two other major secretory proteins, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), by immunohistochemistry [21].
  • CONCLUSIONS: PAP 213-221 may be appropriate as a cancer vaccine for specific immunotherapy in patients with HLA-A2402 positive prostate cancer [22].
  • The apparent molecular mass of human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) was estimated over a wide range of enzyme concentrations using equilibrium centrifugation in the "Airfuge" tabletop ultracentrifuge [33].
  • A 63-year-old man, who had undergone prostatectomy for prostate cancer that was positive for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was examined and found to have metastatic disease, proven radiologically and pathologically, but with an undetectable PSA and highly elevated prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) [34].


  1. The prostatic acid phosphatase (ACPP) gene is localized to human chromosome 3q21-q23. Li, S.S., Sharief, F.S. Genomics (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of human prostatic acid phosphatase and prostate specific antigen genes in neoplastic and benign tissues. Sharief, F.S., Mohler, J.L., Sharief, Y., Li, S.S. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Structure of human prostatic acid phosphatase gene. Sharief, F.S., Li, S.S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Gamma-seminoprotein--a new tumour marker in prostatic cancer? Results of a pilot study. Maier, U., Simak, R. British journal of urology. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Chronic pelvic pain as a somatoform disorder. Ehlert, U., Heim, C., Hellhammer, D.H. Psychotherapy and psychosomatics. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Prostatic acid phosphatase is not a prostate specific target. Quintero, I.B., Araujo, C.L., Pulkka, A.E., Wirkkala, R.S., Herrala, A.M., Eskelinen, E.L., Jokitalo, E., Hellström, P.A., Tuominen, H.J., Hirvikoski, P.P., Vihko, P.T. Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Mutations in MKKS cause Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Slavotinek, A.M., Stone, E.M., Mykytyn, K., Heckenlively, J.R., Green, J.S., Heon, E., Musarella, M.A., Parfrey, P.S., Sheffield, V.C., Biesecker, L.G. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Transmural pressure measurements. Importance in the assessment of pulmonary hypertension in obstructive sleep apneas. Marrone, O., Bellia, V., Ferrara, G., Milone, F., Romano, L., Salvaggio, A., Stallone, A., Bonsignore, G. Chest (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Possible role of 3'(2')-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphate phosphatase in the etiology and therapy of bipolar disorder. Agam, G., Shaltiel, G. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Prostate-specific antigen as a serum marker for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Stamey, T.A., Yang, N., Hay, A.R., McNeal, J.E., Freiha, F.S., Redwine, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Placental localization of human pregnancy--associated plasma proteins. Lin, T.M., Halbert, S.P. Science (1976) [Pubmed]
  12. Idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis as an autoimmune disease with neutralizing antibody against granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Kitamura, T., Tanaka, N., Watanabe, J., Uchida, n.u.l.l., Kanegasaki, S., Yamada, Y., Nakata, K. J. Exp. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Isolation and characterization of propagable cell lines (HUNC) from the androgen-sensitive Dunning R3327H rat prostatic adenocarcinoma. Presnell, S.C., Borchert, K.M., Glover, W.J., Gregory, C.W., Mohler, J.L., Smith, G.J. Carcinogenesis (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. NK cell activity in treated prostate cancer patients as a probe for circulating tumor cells: hormone regulatory effects in vivo. Kastelan, M., Kraljić, I., Tarle, M. Prostate (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Changes in immunohistochemical staining in prostatic adenocarcinoma following diethylstilbestrol therapy. Grignon, D., Troster, M. Prostate (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Relationship between diurnal rhythm of serum testosterone and two prostatic markers (PSA and PAP) in untreated prostate cancer. Akimoto, S., Masai, M., Shimazaki, J. Urology (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Comparison of phosphatase isoenzymes PAP and PSA with bone scan in patients with prostate carcinoma. Amico, S., Liehn, J.C., Desoize, B., Larbre, H., Deltour, G., Valeyre, J. Clinical nuclear medicine. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Nucleotide sequence of human prostatic acid phosphatase ACPP gene, including seven Alu repeats. Sharief, F.S., Li, S.S. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Dendritic cell-based xenoantigen vaccination for prostate cancer immunotherapy. Fong, L., Brockstedt, D., Benike, C., Breen, J.K., Strang, G., Ruegg, C.L., Engleman, E.G. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Crystal structure of human prostatic acid phosphatase . Jakob, C.G., Lewinski, K., Kuciel, R., Ostrowski, W., Lebioda, L. Prostate (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. In situ hybridization study of PSP94 (prostatic secretory protein of 94 amino acids) expression in human prostates. Chan, P.S., Chan, L.W., Xuan, J.W., Chin, J.L., Choi, H.L., Chan, F.L. Prostate (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Induction of tumor specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in prostate cancer using prostatic acid phosphatase derived HLA-A2402 binding peptide. Inoue, Y., Takaue, Y., Takei, M., Kato, K., Kanai, S., Harada, Y., Tobisu, K., Noguchi, M., Kakizoe, T., Itoh, K., Wakasugi, H. J. Urol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Amidolytic activity of prostatic acid phosphatase on human semenogelins and semenogelin-derived synthetic substrates. Brillard-Bourdet, M., Réhault, S., Juliano, L., Ferrer, M., Moreau, T., Gauthier, F. Eur. J. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Identification of gp17 glycoprotein and characterization of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and carboxypeptidase E (CPE) fragments in a human seminal plasma fraction interacting with concanavalin A. Marquínez, A.C., Andreetta, A.M., González, N., Wolfenstein-Todel, C., Scacciati de Cerezo, J.M. J. Protein Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Analysis of the promoter of the human prostatic acid phosphatase gene. Banas, B., Blaschke, D., Fittler, F., Hörz, W. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Evaluation of prostate-specific antigen in prostate cancer. Pons-Anicet, D., Ramaioli, A., Namer, M., Krebs, B.P. Am. J. Clin. Oncol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Prostate-specific antigen in mass screening for carcinoma of the prostate. Shimizu, T.S., Uchida, T., Satoh, J., Imai, K., Yamanaka, H. International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Relative value of prostate-specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase in diagnosis and management of adenocarcinoma of prostate. Ohio State University experience. Drago, J.R., Badalament, R.A., Wientjes, M.G., Smith, J.J., Nesbitt, J.A., York, J.P., Ashton, J.J., Neff, J.C. Urology (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) expression in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinoma: a novel prostate cancer marker. Darson, M.F., Pacelli, A., Roche, P., Rittenhouse, H.G., Wolfert, R.L., Young, C.Y., Klee, G.G., Tindall, D.J., Bostwick, D.G. Urology (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Steroid-involved transcriptional regulation of human genes encoding prostatic acid phosphatase, prostate-specific antigen, and prostate-specific glandular kallikrein. Shan, J.D., Porvari, K., Ruokonen, M., Karhu, A., Launonen, V., Hedberg, P., Oikarinen, J., Vihko, P. Endocrinology (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Spread of prostate carcinoma to the perirectal lymph node basin: analysis of 112 rectal resections over a 10-year span for primary rectal adenocarcinoma. Murray, S.K., Breau, R.H., Guha, A.K., Gupta, R. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Naturally occurring prostate cancer antigen-specific T cell responses of a Th1 phenotype can be detected in patients with prostate cancer. McNeel, D.G., Nguyen, L.D., Ellis, W.J., Higano, C.S., Lange, P.H., Disis, M.L. Prostate (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Concentration-dependent dissociation/association of human prostatic acid phosphatase. Luchter-Wasylewska, E., Wasylewski, M., Röhm, K.H. J. Protein Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Undetectable serum prostate-specific antigen associated with metastatic prostate cancer: a case report and review of the literature. Safa, A.A., Reese, D.M., Carter, D.M., Phillipson, J., Smith, R., Dougherty, S. Am. J. Clin. Oncol. (1998) [Pubmed]
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