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Chemical Compound Review

SODIUM BICARBONATE     sodium hydroxymethanoate

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Disease relevance of carbonic acid


Psychiatry related information on carbonic acid


High impact information on carbonic acid


Chemical compound and disease context of carbonic acid


Biological context of carbonic acid

  • Arterial pressure fell less with carbicarb (-12 vs -46 mm Hg, p less than .006) and the cardiac output was stable with carbicarb but decreased with NaHCO3 (from 143 to 98 ml/kg/min, p less than .004) [19].
  • NaHCO3 also significantly prolonged endocardial monophasic action potential duration from 231 +/- 22 to 272 +/- 33 msec and decreased serum [K+] from 3.8 +/- 0.2 to 3.0 +/- 0.2 meq/l, but it did not alter plasma ODE concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[20]
  • Reaction initiation by addition of either NaHCO3 or diaminopelargonic acid to crystals already containing cosubstrates resulted in the accumulation of the phosphorylated intermediate at the active site [21].
  • The requirement of NaHCO3 for these phosphorylations is not due to an alkalinization of intracellular sperm pH or to an increase in media pH [22].
  • NaHCO3 treatment, with or without AsA, induced cellular proliferation, although it is unclear whether this is an essential factor [23].

Anatomical context of carbonic acid


Associations of carbonic acid with other chemical compounds

  • In addition, peak increases in acid-induced bicarbonate outputs with luminal perfusion of 154 mM NaCl and 32 mM NaHCO3 (+122 mM NaCl) were similar [28].
  • During nasal breathing, tap water, 0.9% NaCl, 0.5 mol/L glucose, 0.5 mol/L NaHCO3, or acetic acid (pH 5.2) were infused at 0.5 mL/s on the dorsum of the tongue using a special feeding tube [29].
  • Moreover, prostaglandin E2-stimulated bicarbonate secretion with perfusion of 154 mM NaCl and 32 mM NaHCO3 (+122 mM NaCl) was similar [28].
  • Cauda epididymal sperm, when incubated in media devoid of NaHCO3, CaCl2 or bovine serum albumin do not display the capacitation-associated increases in protein tyrosine phosphorylation of this subset of proteins [30].
  • Values of Km at pH 7.5 AND 30 degrees with L-leucine p-nitroanilide as substrate in the presence of 0.01 M NaHCO3 are 4.13 and 2.01 mM for the zinc-zinc and magnesium-zinc enzymes, respectively [31].

Gene context of carbonic acid

  • Intact erythrocytes from subjects with deficiency of blood carbonic anhydrase (CA) II and from normal subjects were assayed for enzyme activity by use of an 18O exchange technique in a solution containing 25 mM (CO2 + NaHCO3) plus 125 mM NaCl [32].
  • 9. Results were comparable for the hemolysates with the NaHCO3 reduced to 85 mM (the corresponding intracellular concentration): at 25 degrees C CA II-deficient cells had a velocity of 0.36 +/- 0.01 M/s compared with 1.12 +/- 0.04 M/s for the normal cells, a ratio of 1:3 [32].
  • The NaHCO3 cotransporter gene (SLC4A5) on chromosome 2 encodes a protein that transports sodium and bicarbonate across the cell membrane and regulates cellular pH [33].
  • Regulated expression of pendrin in rat kidney in response to chronic NH4Cl or NaHCO3 loading [34].
  • Intraluminal perfusion with alkaline solutions (0.1 M NaHCO3) increased gastrin secretion, whereas perfusion with acid solutions (pH 3.5-3.0) inhibited gastrin secretion [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of carbonic acid

  • Sodium bicarbonate in CPR [36].
  • Donor rats were infused intraduodenally with 0.01 N HCl, 0.15 M NaCl, or a combination of 0.01 N HCl and 0.05 N NaHCO3 at 0.3 ml/min for 1.5 h, and the perfusates were collected via jejunal cannulas [37].
  • Intragastric titration, introduced in 1973, has become more popular than in the past and is being applied to the study of gastric secretion under a variety of conditions using NaHCO3 and NaOH as titrant [38].
  • Intravenous treatment with NaHCO3 and glucagon increased alkaline secretion (+25% and +37%, respectively) and decreased damage (-27.7% and -25.3%, respectively), whereas mucosal blood flow as assessed by radioactive microspheres was stimulated only by glucagon [39].
  • In group E, HCl was added to the reperfusate to give pH 6.8 (metabolic acidosis). pH was corrected after 5 minutes of reperfusion by administration of NaHCO3 and THAM over the next 15 minutes [40].


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  18. Evaluation in humans of attenuated Vibrio cholerae El Tor Ogawa strain Texas Star-SR as a live oral vaccine. Levine, M.M., Black, R.E., Clements, M.L., Lanata, C., Sears, S., Honda, T., Young, C.R., Finkelstein, R.A. Infect. Immun. (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Improved hemodynamic function during hypoxia with Carbicarb, a new agent for the management of acidosis. Bersin, R.M., Arieff, A.I. Circulation (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Acute electrophysiologic effects of sodium administration in dogs treated with O-desmethyl encainide. Bajaj, A.K., Woosley, R.L., Roden, D.M. Circulation (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Snapshot of a phosphorylated substrate intermediate by kinetic crystallography. Käck, H., Gibson, K.J., Lindqvist, Y., Schneider, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
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  23. L-ascorbic acid amplification of second-stage bladder carcinogenesis promotion by NaHCO3. Fukushima, S., Imaida, K., Shibata, M.A., Tamano, S., Kurata, Y., Shirai, T. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Roles of gut hormones in negative-feedback regulation of pancreatic exocrine secretion in humans. Jin, H.O., Song, C.W., Chang, T.M., Chey, W.Y. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
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  27. Regulation of intracellular pH in BALB/c 3T3 cells. Bicarbonate raises pH via NaHCO3/HCl exchange and attenuates the activation of Na+/H+ exchange by serum. Gillies, R.J., Martinez-Zaguilan, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Human duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion. Evidence suggesting active transport under basal and stimulated conditions. Odes, H.S., Hogan, D.L., Ballesteros, M.A., Wolosin, J.D., Koss, M.A., Isenberg, J.I. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. Gustatory stimulation of the oropharynx fails to induce swallowing in the sleeping dog. Issa, F.G. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
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  31. Leucine aminopeptidase (bovine lens). Effect of pH on the relative binding of Zn2+ and Mg2+ to and on activation of the enzyme. Thompson, G.A., Carpenter, F.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  32. Carbonic anhydrase activity of intact carbonic anhydrase II-deficient human erythrocytes. Dodgson, S.J., Forster, R.E., Sly, W.S., Tashian, R.E. J. Appl. Physiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  33. Sodium bicarbonate cotransporter polymorphisms are associated with baseline and 10-year follow-up blood pressures. Hunt, S.C., Xin, Y., Wu, L.L., Cawthon, R.M., Coon, H., Hasstedt, S.J., Hopkins, P.N. Hypertension (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. Regulated expression of pendrin in rat kidney in response to chronic NH4Cl or NaHCO3 loading. Frische, S., Kwon, T.H., Frøkiaer, J., Madsen, K.M., Nielsen, S. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Stimulation of gastrin secretion in vitro by intraluminal chemicals: regulation by intramural cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons. Saffouri, B., DuVal, J.W., Makhlouf, G.M. Gastroenterology (1984) [Pubmed]
  36. Sodium bicarbonate in CPR. Weisfeldt, M.L., Guerci, A.D. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  37. Mechanism of acid-induced release of secretin in rats. Presence of a secretin-releasing peptide. Li, P., Lee, K.Y., Chang, T.M., Chey, W.Y. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
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  39. Alkaline secretion. A protective mechanism against acid injury in rabbit duodenum. Wenzl, E., Feil, W., Starlinger, M., Schiessel, R. Gastroenterology (1987) [Pubmed]
  40. Effects of hypercarbic acidotic reperfusion on recovery of myocardial function after cardioplegic ischemia in neonatal lambs. Nomura, F., Aoki, M., Forbess, J.M., Mayer, J.E. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
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