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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Morbidity


Psychiatry related information on Morbidity


High impact information on Morbidity

  • Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is characterized by dilation of collecting ducts and by biliary dysgenesis and is an important cause of renal- and liver-related morbidity and mortality [11].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The previously reported benefits of carvedilol with regard to morbidity and mortality in patients with mild-to-moderate heart failure were also apparent in the patients with severe heart failure who were evaluated in this trial [12].
  • However, the post hoc observation of an adverse effect on mortality and morbidity in the subgroup receiving valsartan, an ACE inhibitor, and a beta-blocker raises concern about the potential safety of this specific combination [13].
  • No morbidity attributable to ABO incompatibility has been observed [14].
  • Using the differences in the rates of these events when influenzavirus was circulating and the rates from November through April when there was no influenza in the community, we calculated morbidity attributable to influenza [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Morbidity


Biological context of Morbidity


Anatomical context of Morbidity

  • METHODS: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to compare the effect of atenolol with that of a placebo on overall survival and cardiovascular morbidity in patients with or at risk for coronary artery disease who were undergoing noncardiac surgery [25].
  • IL-11 thus decreased GVHD morbidity and mortality by three mechanisms: (a) polarization of donor T cells; (b) protection of the small bowel; and (c) suppression of inflammatory cytokines such as TNFalpha [26].
  • Although earlier engraftment is seen when cells from GCSF-mobilized blood are transplanted than when bone marrow is transplanted, administration of GCSF to patients with SCD can cause significant morbidity [27].
  • Septic shock induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggering of cytokine production from monocytes/macrophages is a major cause of morbidity and mortality [28].
  • The coadministration of purified facilitating cells plus stem cells to optimize engraftment yet avoid GVHD may expand the potential application of bone marrow transplantation to disease states in which the morbidity and mortality associated with conventional BMT cannot be justified [29].

Associations of Morbidity with chemical compounds

  • We studied the effect of estrogen use on morbidity from cardiovascular disease in 1234 postmenopausal women, aged 50 to 83 years, participating in the Framingham Heart Study's 12th biennial examination (index examination) [30].
  • After adjustment for differences between groups in the extent of disease, there was no difference between vidarabine and acyclovir in either morbidity (P = 0.83) or mortality (P = 0.27) [18].
  • The role of cockroach allergy and exposure to cockroach allergen in causing morbidity among inner-city children with asthma [31].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Blockade of aldosterone receptors by spironolactone, in addition to standard therapy, substantially reduces the risk of both morbidity and death among patients with severe heart failure [32].
  • Uncontrolled studies have suggested that dichloroacetate, which stimulates the oxidation of lactate to acetyl-coenzyme A and carbon dioxide, might reduce morbidity and improve survival among patients with this condition [33].

Gene context of Morbidity

  • Obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and with elevated circulating levels of the satiety factor leptin [34].
  • However, uPAR-/-/tPA-/- mice do not develop the pervasive, multi-organ fibrin deposits, severe tissue damage, reduced fertility, and high morbidity and mortality observed in mice with a combined deficiency in tPA and the uPAR ligand, uPA [35].
  • Adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity, the age regression coefficients became substantially smaller in models predicting IL-6, IL-1ra, IL-18, and fibrinogen and larger in the model predicting sIL6r [36].
  • Transfection of leukemic cells with MLL-AF4 siRNAs reduces leukemia-associated morbidity and mortality in SCID mice that received a xenotransplant, suggesting that MLL-AF4 depletion negatively affects leukemia-initiating cells [37].
  • In fact, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality of VHL patients is RCC [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Morbidity


  1. Role of CFTR in airway disease. Pilewski, J.M., Frizzell, R.A. Physiol. Rev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Respiratory tract mucin genes and mucin glycoproteins in health and disease. Rose, M.C., Voynow, J.A. Physiol. Rev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. An epidemiologic study of abuse of analgesic drugs. Effects of phenacetin and salicylate on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity (1968 to 1987). Dubach, U.C., Rosner, B., Stürmer, T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Effect of captopril on mortality and morbidity in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Results of the survival and ventricular enlargement trial. The SAVE Investigators. Pfeffer, M.A., Braunwald, E., Moyé, L.A., Basta, L., Brown, E.J., Cuddy, T.E., Davis, B.R., Geltman, E.M., Goldman, S., Flaker, G.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. An acquired chemotactic defect in neutrophils from patients receiving interleukin-2 immunotherapy. Klempner, M.S., Noring, R., Mier, J.W., Atkins, M.B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of losartan on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. Brenner, B.M., Cooper, M.E., de Zeeuw, D., Keane, W.F., Mitch, W.E., Parving, H.H., Remuzzi, G., Snapinn, S.M., Zhang, Z., Shahinfar, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Medium-term survival, morbidity and immunovirological evolution in HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Seyler, C., Anglaret, X., Dakoury-Dogbo, N., Messou, E., Touré, S., Danel, C., Diakité, N., Daudié, A., Inwoley, A., Maurice, C., Tonwe-Gold, B., Rouet, F., N'Dri-Yoman, T., Salamon, R. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. In vivo imaging of dendritic spines during electrographic seizures. Rensing, N., Ouyang, Y., Yang, X.F., Yamada, K.A., Rothman, S.M., Wong, M. Ann. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Lithium maintenance treatment of depression and mania in bipolar I and bipolar II disorders. Tondo, L., Baldessarini, R.J., Hennen, J., Floris, G. The American journal of psychiatry. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Family history of panic disorder and hypersensitivity to CO2 in patients with panic disorder. Perna, G., Bertani, A., Caldirola, D., Bellodi, L. The American journal of psychiatry. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. The gene mutated in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease encodes a large, receptor-like protein. Ward, C.J., Hogan, M.C., Rossetti, S., Walker, D., Sneddon, T., Wang, X., Kubly, V., Cunningham, J.M., Bacallao, R., Ishibashi, M., Milliner, D.S., Torres, V.E., Harris, P.C. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of carvedilol on survival in severe chronic heart failure. Packer, M., Coats, A.J., Fowler, M.B., Katus, H.A., Krum, H., Mohacsi, P., Rouleau, J.L., Tendera, M., Castaigne, A., Roecker, E.B., Schultz, M.K., DeMets, D.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. A randomized trial of the angiotensin-receptor blocker valsartan in chronic heart failure. Cohn, J.N., Tognoni, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. ABO-incompatible heart transplantation in infants. West, L.J., Pollock-Barziv, S.M., Dipchand, A.I., Lee, K.J., Cardella, C.J., Benson, L.N., Rebeyka, I.M., Coles, J.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. The effect of influenza on hospitalizations, outpatient visits, and courses of antibiotics in children. Neuzil, K.M., Mellen, B.G., Wright, P.F., Mitchel, E.F., Griffin, M.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. A randomized, controlled trial of vitamin A in children with severe measles. Hussey, G.D., Klein, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Cyclosporine-induced hyperuricemia and gout. Lin, H.Y., Rocher, L.L., McQuillan, M.A., Schmaltz, S., Palella, T.D., Fox, I.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. A controlled trial comparing vidarabine with acyclovir in neonatal herpes simplex virus infection. Infectious Diseases Collaborative Antiviral Study Group. Whitley, R., Arvin, A., Prober, C., Burchett, S., Corey, L., Powell, D., Plotkin, S., Starr, S., Alford, C., Connor, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. An efficacy trial of doxycycline chemoprophylaxis against leptospirosis. Takafuji, E.T., Kirkpatrick, J.W., Miller, R.N., Karwacki, J.J., Kelley, P.W., Gray, M.R., McNeill, K.M., Timboe, H.L., Kane, R.E., Sanchez, J.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. The decline of androgen levels in elderly men and its clinical and therapeutic implications. Kaufman, J.M., Vermeulen, A. Endocr. Rev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Low dose oral prednisolone in renal transplantation. Morris, P.J., Chan, L., French, M.E., Ting, A. Lancet (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Prevention of excess neonatal morbidity associated with group B streptococci by vaginal chlorhexidine disinfection during labour. The Swedish Chlorhexidine Study Group. Burman, L.G., Christensen, P., Christensen, K., Fryklund, B., Helgesson, A.M., Svenningsen, N.W., Tullus, K. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Hypertension, blood viscosity, and cardiovascular morbidity in renal failure: implications of erythropoietin therapy. Raine, A.E. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Structural basis for oligosaccharide-mediated adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Mitchell, E., Houles, C., Sudakevitz, D., Wimmerova, M., Gautier, C., Pérez, S., Wu, A.M., Gilboa-Garber, N., Imberty, A. Nat. Struct. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Effect of atenolol on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity after noncardiac surgery. Multicenter Study of Perioperative Ischemia Research Group. Mangano, D.T., Layug, E.L., Wallace, A., Tateo, I. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Interleukin-11 promotes T cell polarization and prevents acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Hill, G.R., Cooke, K.R., Teshima, T., Crawford, J.M., Keith, J.C., Brinson, Y.S., Bungard, D., Ferrara, J.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Spontaneous circulation of myeloid-lymphoid-initiating cells and SCID-repopulating cells in sickle cell crisis. Lamming, C.E., Augustin, L., Blackstad, M., Lund, T.C., Hebbel, R.P., Verfaillie, C.M. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Heterotrimeric G proteins physically associated with the lipopolysaccharide receptor CD14 modulate both in vivo and in vitro responses to lipopolysaccharide. Solomon, K.R., Kurt-Jones, E.A., Saladino, R.A., Stack, A.M., Dunn, I.F., Ferretti, M., Golenbock, D., Fleisher, G.R., Finberg, R.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Phenotypic characterization of a novel bone marrow-derived cell that facilitates engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow stem cells. Kaufman, C.L., Colson, Y.L., Wren, S.M., Watkins, S., Simmons, R.L., Ildstad, S.T. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  30. Postmenopausal estrogen use, cigarette smoking, and cardiovascular morbidity in women over 50. The Framingham Study. Wilson, P.W., Garrison, R.J., Castelli, W.P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  31. The role of cockroach allergy and exposure to cockroach allergen in causing morbidity among inner-city children with asthma. Rosenstreich, D.L., Eggleston, P., Kattan, M., Baker, D., Slavin, R.G., Gergen, P., Mitchell, H., McNiff-Mortimer, K., Lynn, H., Ownby, D., Malveaux, F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study Investigators. Pitt, B., Zannad, F., Remme, W.J., Cody, R., Castaigne, A., Perez, A., Palensky, J., Wittes, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. A controlled clinical trial of dichloroacetate for treatment of lactic acidosis in adults. The Dichloroacetate-Lactic Acidosis Study Group. Stacpoole, P.W., Wright, E.C., Baumgartner, T.G., Bersin, R.M., Buchalter, S., Curry, S.H., Duncan, C.A., Harman, E.M., Henderson, G.N., Jenkinson, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. Leptin-dependent platelet aggregation and arterial thrombosis suggests a mechanism for atherothrombotic disease in obesity. Konstantinides, S., Schäfer, K., Koschnick, S., Loskutoff, D.J. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is effective in fibrin clearance in the absence of its receptor or tissue-type plasminogen activator. Bugge, T.H., Flick, M.J., Danton, M.J., Daugherty, C.C., Romer, J., Dano, K., Carmeliet, P., Collen, D., Degen, J.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. The origins of age-related proinflammatory state. Ferrucci, L., Corsi, A., Lauretani, F., Bandinelli, S., Bartali, B., Taub, D.D., Guralnik, J.M., Longo, D.L. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Targeting MLL-AF4 with short interfering RNAs inhibits clonogenicity and engraftment of t(4;11)-positive human leukemic cells. Thomas, M., Gessner, A., Vornlocher, H.P., Hadwiger, P., Greil, J., Heidenreich, O. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein sensitizes renal cell carcinoma cells to tumor necrosis factor-induced cytotoxicity by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent antiapoptotic pathway. Qi, H., Ohh, M. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  39. Diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) in the treatment of severe traumatic hemorrhagic shock: a randomized controlled efficacy trial. Sloan, E.P., Koenigsberg, M., Gens, D., Cipolle, M., Runge, J., Mallory, M.N., Rodman, G. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  40. Randomized trial of high-dose chemotherapy and blood cell autografts for high-risk primary breast carcinoma. Hortobagyi, G.N., Buzdar, A.U., Theriault, R.L., Valero, V., Frye, D., Booser, D.J., Holmes, F.A., Giralt, S., Khouri, I., Andersson, B., Gajewski, J.L., Rondon, G., Smith, T.L., Singletary, S.E., Ames, F.C., Sneige, N., Strom, E.A., McNeese, M.D., Deisseroth, A.B., Champlin, R.E. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2000) [Pubmed]
  41. Effect of exposure of miners to aluminium powder. Rifat, S.L., Eastwood, M.R., McLachlan, D.R., Corey, P.N. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  42. Beneficial effects of metoprolol in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Metoprolol in Dilated Cardiomyopathy (MDC) Trial Study Group. Waagstein, F., Bristow, M.R., Swedberg, K., Camerini, F., Fowler, M.B., Silver, M.A., Gilbert, E.M., Johnson, M.R., Goss, F.G., Hjalmarson, A. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
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