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Chemical Compound Review

NONOXYNOL     2-(4-nonylphenoxy)ethanol

Synonyms: Egyptol, Koromex, Nonoxinol, Nonoxinols, Nonoxynols, ...
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Disease relevance of NONOXYNOL


Psychiatry related information on NONOXYNOL

  • Oral fluid specimens were collected from passive and active subjects with the Intercept Oral Specimen Collection Device for 1 h after smoking cessation while inside the van (Study 1) and up to 72 h (passive) or 8 h (active) outside the van [3].
  • The Sequential Intercept Model provides a conceptual framework for communities to use when considering the interface between the criminal justice and mental health systems as they address concerns about criminalization of people with mental illness [4].

High impact information on NONOXYNOL


Chemical compound and disease context of NONOXYNOL


Biological context of NONOXYNOL


Anatomical context of NONOXYNOL

  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety of 100 mg nonoxynol-9 (N-9) gel, a vaginal microbicide, on the genital mucosa of women from Malawi and Zimbabwe in preparation for a phase III efficacy study [19].
  • METHODS: An inoculum consisting of 2 million FIV-infected primary cat T cells was administered vaginally, rectally or orally to female cats that had received either no pretreatment or pretreatment with a contraceptive jelly containing the detergent nonoxynol-9 as spermicide [20].
  • The effects of three nonoxynol-9 preparations on vaginal flora and epithelium [21].
  • Nonoxynol-9: differential antibacterial activity and enhancement of bacterial adherence to vaginal epithelial cells [10].
  • Simultaneous assessment of the potency of different spermicides (e.g., nonoxynol-9, C13G) and spermicide concentrations was achieved with structures comprising chambers containing spermicide connected via channels to a central chamber into which semen was introduced [22].

Associations of NONOXYNOL with other chemical compounds


Gene context of NONOXYNOL

  • VK-2 cells incubated for 6 h with nonoxynol-9 released significant amounts of IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8 [28].
  • Gels containing 2 and 4% nonoxynol-9, administered to female rabbits intravaginally for 3 days, induced a potent inflammatory reaction evidenced by high levels of IL-lb and CD3+ T cells in cervicovaginal lavages and a significant influx of CD4 and nuclear factor kappa B cells into mucosal and submucosal tissues [28].
  • INTERPRETATION: D2S and PRO-2000, novel inhibitors of HIV entry, showed evidence of protection in vivo, comparable to that seen with the virucide, N9 [29].
  • RESULTS: D2S, P2K, GD and N9 all inhibited SHIV(89.6PD) in vitro [29].
  • Certain aryl 4-guanidinobenzoates (AGs; inhibitors of proteinases, including the sperm enzyme acrosin) have been shown to be more potent vaginal contraceptives in rabbits and less toxic than nonoxynol-9, the active ingredient of most marketed vaginal contraceptive formulations [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of NONOXYNOL

  • In recent clinical trials, nonoxynol-9 (N-9), a virucide with a long history of intravaginal use as a contraceptive, failed to protect against HIV-1 possibly due to mucosal inflammatory damage [31].
  • Future studies of the effects of low-dose nonoxynol-9 on the female genital tract require highly controlled exposures, plus colposcopy with or without vaginal biopsy to define inflammation [16].
  • Articles were included if the design was clinical trial, cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional; original outcome data were presented for gonorrhea, chlamydial infection, or HIV; and spermicides containing nonoxynol-9 were used separately from other barrier methods [32].
  • RESULTS: Gross observation of rectal lavage indicated sheets of epithelium 15 minutes after application of the nonoxynol-9 product [33].
  • Do spermicides containing nonoxynol-9 prevent sexually transmitted infections? A meta-analysis [32].


  1. A controlled trial of nonoxynol 9 film to reduce male-to-female transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. Roddy, R.E., Zekeng, L., Ryan, K.A., Tamoufé, U., Weir, S.S., Wong, E.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Nonoxynol 9 cream for genital herpes simplex. Donsky, H.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  3. Passive cannabis smoke exposure and oral fluid testing. II. Two studies of extreme cannabis smoke exposure in a motor vehicle. Niedbala, R.S., Kardos, K.W., Fritch, D.F., Kunsman, K.P., Blum, K.A., Newland, G.A., Waga, J., Kurtz, L., Bronsgeest, M., Cone, E.J. Journal of analytical toxicology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Use of the Sequential Intercept Model as an approach to decriminalization of people with serious mental illness. Munetz, M.R., Griffin, P.A. Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Efficacy of nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge use in preventing heterosexual acquisition of HIV in Nairobi prostitutes. Kreiss, J., Ngugi, E., Holmes, K., Ndinya-Achola, J., Waiyaki, P., Roberts, P.L., Ruminjo, I., Sajabi, R., Kimata, J., Fleming, T.R. JAMA (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Birth defects and vaginal spermicides. Shapiro, S., Slone, D., Heinonen, O.P., Kaufman, D.W., Rosenberg, L., Mitchell, A.A., Helmrich, S.P. JAMA (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. Effectiveness of COL-1492, a nonoxynol-9 vaginal gel, on HIV-1 transmission in female sex workers: a randomised controlled trial. Van Damme, L., Ramjee, G., Alary, M., Vuylsteke, B., Chandeying, V., Rees, H., Sirivongrangson, P., Mukenge-Tshibaka, L., Ettiègne-Traoré, V., Uaheowitchai, C., Karim, S.S., Mâsse, B., Perriëns, J., Laga, M. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Inactivation of HTLV-III/LAV-infected cultures of normal human lymphocytes by nonoxynol-9 in vitro. Hicks, D.R., Martin, L.S., Getchell, J.P., Heath, J.L., Francis, D.P., McDougal, J.S., Curran, J.W., Voeller, B. Lancet (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. A broad-spectrum microbicide with virucidal activity against sexually transmitted viruses. Howett, M.K., Neely, E.B., Christensen, N.D., Wigdahl, B., Krebs, F.C., Malamud, D., Patrick, S.D., Pickel, M.D., Welsh, P.A., Reed, C.A., Ward, M.G., Budgeon, L.R., Kreider, J.W. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Nonoxynol-9: differential antibacterial activity and enhancement of bacterial adherence to vaginal epithelial cells. Hooton, T.M., Fennell, C.L., Clark, A.M., Stamm, W.E. J. Infect. Dis. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Biocompatibility of solid-dosage forms of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 microbicides with the human cervicovaginal mucosa modeled ex vivo. Trifonova, R.T., Pasicznyk, J.M., Fichorova, R.N. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Inhibition of growth of Chlamydia trachomatis by nonoxynol-9 in vitro. Benes, S., McCormack, W.M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. The effect of nonoxynol-9 and chlorhexidine on HIV and sperm in vitro. Harrison, C., Chantler, E. International journal of STD & AIDS. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. The molecular basis of nonoxynol-9-induced vaginal inflammation and its possible relevance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission. Fichorova, R.N., Tucker, L.D., Anderson, D.J. J. Infect. Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Nonoxynol-9 induces apoptosis of endometrial explants by both caspase-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways. Jain, J.K., Li, A., Nucatola, D.L., Minoo, P., Felix, J.C. Biol. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Nonoxynol-9 in lubricated condoms. Results of a study in female prostitutes. Ward, H., De La Court, A., Kitchen, V. Sexually transmitted diseases. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. The inhibitory effect of spermicidal agents on replication of HSV-2 and HIV-1 in-vitro. Jennings, R., Clegg, A. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Primate model for the evaluation of vaginal contraceptives. Zaneveld, L.J., Bhattacharyya, A.K., Kim, D.S., Schumacher, G.F., Beluhan, Z. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  19. Nonoxynol-9 100 mg gel: multi-site safety study from sub-Saharan Africa. Hoffman, I.F., Taha, T.E., Padian, N.S., Kelly, C.W., Welch, J.D., Martinson, F.E., Kumwenda, N.I., Rosenberg, Z.F., Chilongozi, D.A., Brown, J.M., Chirenje, M., Richardson, B.A. AIDS (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. The cat/feline immunodeficiency virus model for transmucosal transmission of AIDS: nonoxynol-9 contraceptive jelly blocks transmission by an infected cell inoculum. Moench, T.R., Whaley, K.J., Mandrell, T.D., Bishop, B.D., Witt, C.J., Cone, R.A. AIDS (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. The effects of three nonoxynol-9 preparations on vaginal flora and epithelium. Watts, D.H., Rabe, L., Krohn, M.A., Aura, J., Hillier, S.L. J. Infect. Dis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Applications of a microfabricated device for evaluating sperm function. Kricka, L.J., Nozaki, O., Heyner, S., Garside, W.T., Wilding, P. Clin. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Barrier contraceptive use and HIV infection among high-risk women in Cameroon. Zekeng, L., Feldblum, P.J., Oliver, R.M., Kaptue, L. AIDS (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and C31G as microbicidal alternatives to nonoxynol 9: comparative sensitivity of primary human vaginal keratinocytes. Krebs, F.C., Miller, S.R., Catalone, B.J., Welsh, P.A., Malamud, D., Howett, M.K., Wigdahl, B. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Novel thiourea compounds as dual-function microbicides. D'Cruz, O.J., Venkatachalam, T.K., Uckun, F.M. Biol. Reprod. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Comparison of the action of nonoxynol-9 and chlorhexidine on sperm. Sharman, D., Chantler, E., Dukes, M., Hutchinson, F.G., Elstein, M. Fertil. Steril. (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. Assessment of a new spermicidal agent against ejaculated dog and human spermatozoa in vitro. Vickery, B.H., Goodpasture, J.C., Bergstrom, K., Walker, K.A., Overstreet, J.W., Katz, D.F. Fertil. Steril. (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Preclinical assessment of the proinflammatory potential of microbicide candidates. Doncel, G.F., Chandra, N., Fichorova, R.N. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. 'Chemical condoms' for the prevention of HIV infection: evaluation of novel agents against SHIV(89.6PD) in vitro and in vivo. Weber, J., Nunn, A., O'Connor, T., Jeffries, D., Kitchen, V., McCormack, S., Stott, J., Almond, N., Stone, A., Darbyshire, J. AIDS (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Effect of aryl 4-guanidinobenzoates on the acrosin activity of human spermatozoa. Kaminski, J.M., Smith, D., Reid, D.S., Kennedy, W., Jeyendran, R.S., Zaneveld, L.J. Biol. Reprod. (1987) [Pubmed]
  31. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 microbicide cellulose acetate 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate in a human in vitro model of vaginal inflammation. Fichorova, R.N., Zhou, F., Ratnam, V., Atanassova, V., Jiang, S., Strick, N., Neurath, A.R. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Do spermicides containing nonoxynol-9 prevent sexually transmitted infections? A meta-analysis. Cook, R.L., Rosenberg, M.J. Sexually transmitted diseases. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Rectal applications of nonoxynol-9 cause tissue disruption in a monkey model. Patton, D.L., Cosgrove Sweeney, Y.T., Rabe, L.K., Hillier, S.L. Sexually transmitted diseases. (2002) [Pubmed]
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