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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission

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High impact information on Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission

  • Analysis of lead was performed using both macro- and micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), and DMSA was measured spectrophotometrically following derivatization with 5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid [1].
  • On the basis of the above knowledge. minor rare-earth elements in a standard iron ore sample were determined as RE-EDTAs by bidirectional isotachophoresis-particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), where the Fe(II) matrix digested by alkali fusion was separated as Fe(II)Phen3(2+) (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) [2].
  • PIXE analyses of hamster protamines extracted under conditions that appear to at least partially preserve zinc binding also confirm that the majority of the metal is bound to protamine [3].
  • The PIXE measurements reveal that the zinc content of the sperm nucleus varies proportionately with the protamine 2 content of sperm chromatin [3].
  • We show by the multi-element technique "proton-induced X-ray microanalysis" (PIXE) that the autometallographic grains contain silver, bismuth, and sulfur, proving that autometallography can be used for specific tracing of bismuth bound as bismuth sulfide clusters in tissue sections from Bi-exposed animals or humans [4].

Biological context of Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission

  • The PIXE analysis of cadmium-exposed ALR mutants and wild-type yeast cells suggests that Alrp has a central role in cell survival in a cadmium-rich environment [5].
  • In the present study, four dental titanium implants, removed with the surrounding tissues from patients at various time intervals after the insertion, were studied by means of the micro-beam proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE micro-beam) technique, which draws maps showing the tissue distribution of elements with a detection limit of about 1 ppm [6].

Anatomical context of Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission

  • Phosphorus and sulfur contents, which can be used to estimate the nuclear DNA and protamine contents of sperm from fertile males, were measured within individual sperm heads from each semen sample by particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) [7].
  • Maternal and umbilical cord serum were checked for copper and zinc by the proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method; maternal serum protein, hemoglobin and estriol were determined as well [8].
  • Antioxidant status can be evaluated by blood selenium, vitamins A and E. The level of selenium was determined in whole blood, erythrocytes and plasma of 170 French people (70-95 years old) healthy and with intercurrent illness, by using PIXE (proton-induced X-ray emission analysis) [9].
  • The dithizone, Timm's sulphide silver and the selenium methods demonstrate a chelatable pool of zinc in CNS. A proton activation (PIXE) analysis of carbon tetrachloride extracts from rat brains and spinal cords intravitally treated with dithizone [10].
  • Elemental contents determined by the particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique revealed major alterations in Fe, Ca, Mn, and Se in the uterus of ovariectomized rats relative to control animals [11].

Associations of Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission with chemical compounds

  • PIXE data confirmed the low sulfate levels in serum and SF while showing no reduction in the levels of other elements analyzed [12].
  • The use of physical analysis methods such as PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) shows that coral and hydroxyapatite, after their implantation in vivo, reach a mineral composition comparable with that of bone [13].
  • A significant correlation was found between iron determination by the PIXE method and the ferrocyanide reagent's score (r = 0.89) [14].
  • Measurement of cysteine dioxygenase substrate (cysteine) and product (sulfate) under controlled conditions, with elemental assessment by proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) [12].
  • Accumulated uranyl phosphate was visible as cell-surface- and polar-localized deposits, identified by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), proton-induced X-ray emission analysis (PIXE) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) as polycrystalline HUO2PO4.4H2O [15].

Gene context of Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission

  • Analysis of the Cu, Fe, and Zn contents in cytochrome C oxidases from different species and tissues by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) [16].
  • Natural matrix CRMs of biological origin including the typical food products are reviewed and the need is identified for new well-characterized materials that would also be suitable for micro-analytical techniques such as PIXE, EDXRF, SS-AAS, etc [17].
  • We described the use of Nuclear microscopy (microbeam PIXE) for the quantitative micron scale analysis of platinum based chemotherapeutic agents in individual cell and tissue slices [18].
  • Finally, RBS, although scarcely used to date in any biological context, is clearly a powerful way of measuring major elemental ratios in mineralised tissues; however, RBS lacks the resolving power of PIXE and so is not a candidate for multi-trace element analysis [19].
  • PIXE micro-beam mapping of metals in human peri-implant tissues [6].


  1. Use of the Caco-2 cell model to assess the relative lead-chelating ability of diasterioisomers of 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid. Pigman, E.A., Lott, J.R., Fernando, Q., Blanchard, J. Environ. Health Perspect. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Isotachophoretic separation behavior of rare-earth EDTA chelates and analysis of minor rare-earth elements in an iron ore by bidirectional isotachophoresis-particle-induced X-ray emission. Hirokawa, T., Nishimoto, K., Jie, Y., Ito, K., Nishiyama, F., Ikuta, N., Hayakawa, S. Journal of chromatography. A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Zinc is sufficiently abundant within mammalian sperm nuclei to bind stoichiometrically with protamine 2. Bench, G., Corzett, M.H., Kramer, C.E., Grant, P.G., Balhorn, R. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Bismuth autometallography: protocol, specificity, and differentiation. Danscher, G., Stoltenberg, M., Kemp, K., Pamphlett, R. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. The function of Alr1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in cadmium detoxification: insights from phylogenetic studies and particle-induced X-ray emission. Kern, A.L., Bonatto, D., Dias, J.F., Yoneama, M.L., Brendel, M., Pêgas Henriques, J.A. Biometals (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. PIXE micro-beam mapping of metals in human peri-implant tissues. Passi, P., Zadro, A., Galassini, S., Rossi, P., Moschini, G. Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Protein and DNA contents in sperm from an infertile human male possessing protamine defects that vary over time. Bench, G., Corzett, M.H., De Yebra, L., Oliva, R., Balhorn, R. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Copper and zinc in pre-eclampsia. Kiilholma, P., Paul, R., Pakarinen, P., Grönroos, M. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Antioxidant status (selenium, vitamins A and E) and aging. Simonoff, M., Sergeant, C., Garnier, N., Moretto, P., Llabador, Y., Simonoff, G., Conri, C. EXS. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. The dithizone, Timm's sulphide silver and the selenium methods demonstrate a chelatable pool of zinc in CNS. A proton activation (PIXE) analysis of carbon tetrachloride extracts from rat brains and spinal cords intravitally treated with dithizone. Danscher, G., Howell, G., Pérez-Clausell, J., Hertel, N. Histochemistry (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on the elemental contents of uterine tissue. Ynsa, M.D., Ager, F.J., Millán, J.C., Gómez-Zubelbia, M.A., Pinheiro, T. Biological trace element research. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Sulfate metabolism is abnormal in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Confirmation by in vivo biochemical findings. Bradley, H., Gough, A., Sokhi, R.S., Hassell, A., Waring, R., Emery, P. J. Rheumatol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Resorption kinetics of osseous substitute: natural coral and synthetic hydroxyapatite. Braye, F., Irigaray, J.L., Jallot, E., Oudadesse, H., Weber, G., Deschamps, N., Deschamps, C., Frayssinet, P., Tourenne, P., Tixier, H., Terver, S., Lefaivre, J., Amirabadi, A. Biomaterials (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Iron content in human alveolar macrophages. Corhay, J.L., Weber, G., Bury, T., Mariz, S., Roelandts, I., Radermecker, M.F. Eur. Respir. J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Localization of enzymically enhanced heavy metal accumulation by Citrobacter sp. and metal accumulation in vitro by liposomes containing entrapped enzyme. Jeong, B.C., Hawes, C., Bonthrone, K.M., Macaskie, L.E. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Analysis of the Cu, Fe, and Zn contents in cytochrome C oxidases from different species and tissues by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Bombelka, E., Richter, F.W., Stroh, A., Kadenbach, B. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Preparation and use of reference materials for quality assurance in inorganic trace analysis. Dybczyński, R. Food additives and contaminants. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Quantitative imaging microscopy for the sensitive detection of administered metal containing drugs in single cells and tissue slices--a demonstration using platinum based chemotherapeutic agent. Mauthe, R.J., Sideras-Haddad, E., Turteltaub, K.W., Bench, G. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Use of charged particle beams for analysis of biological tissues and fluids. Campbell, J.L. Neurotoxicology (1983) [Pubmed]
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