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Chemical Compound Review

AC1L1A4C     iron(+2) cation hexacyanide

Synonyms: 13408-63-4, ferrous hexacyanide, iron(2+) hexacyanide, (OC-6-11)-Hexakis(cyano-C)ferrate(4-)
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Disease relevance of FERROCYANIDE

  • Chronoamperometry and chronocoulometry of suspensions of aerobically cultivated E. coli combined with the non-native oxidant potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) (ferricyanide) yield signals for reoxidation of the reduction product ferrocyanide that are much smaller if the E. coli has been incubated briefly with an effective antibiotic compound [1].
  • Stimulation of thymocytes with Sendai virus is accompanied by reduction of exogenous acetylated ferricytochrome c, which is inhibited by superoxide dismutase, and the quantitative conversion of ferricyanide to ferrocyanide, which is not [2].
  • Seven of the other 18 showed evidence of previous perivascular haemorrhage, as detected by Perls' ferrocyanide test for iron, and a similar number showed minor degrees of meningeal or subpial siderosis, consistent with previous meningeal bleeding; cerebellar siderosis was present in six cases [3].
  • We investigated several possible approaches for correction of the result: dilution of the interference; mathematical correction in the case of hemolysis; treatment with ferrocyanide to destroy bilirubin; and removal of lipids in lipemic patient samples [4].
  • Using resonance Raman spectroscopy, we compared the vibrational properties of the Fe3+ active site of two different classes of SOR, from Desulfoarculus baarsii and Treponema pallidum, along with their ferrocyanide and their peroxo complexes [5].

Psychiatry related information on FERROCYANIDE


High impact information on FERROCYANIDE

  • Actively metabolizing human erythrocytes catalyze the extracellular reduction of ferricyanide to ferrocyanide [7].
  • This distribution is consistent with that of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) network, as demonstrated by electron micrographs of osmium ferrocyanide-stained SR in the two smooth muscles [8].
  • A ferric ion-ferrocyanide (FeFCN) stain that appears to stain the regions with a high sodium channel density in nerve fibers was applied [9].
  • When acute conduction block was initiated 20 to 180 minutes after the antiserum injection, myelin terminal loops began to be detached from the paranodal axolemma and reaction product of FeFCN stain originally localized at the nodes decreased in density and extended to the paranodal axolemma [9].
  • The human manganese-containing SOD does not exert SOR or SOO activities with ferrocyanide or ferricyanide as the redox partners [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of FERROCYANIDE


Biological context of FERROCYANIDE

  • On the other hand, previous results from the presteady state kinetics of reduction and reductive titrations of the ES compound with ferrocyanide imply that the heme and free radical sites exchange oxidizing equivalents, in particular that the radical site once reduced can be reoxidized, either intra- or intermolecularly, by the ferryl heme [13].
  • This membrane potential could not be elicited from ascorbate-free ghosts or by ferrocyanide added instead of ferricyanide [14].
  • Crystal structures of HbA2 and HbE and modeling of hemoglobin delta 4: interpretation of the thermal stability and the antisickling effect of HbA2 and identification of the ferrocyanide binding site in Hb [15].
  • In contrast, the ATPase hydrolysis inhibitors N-methylmaleimide (NEM) and 7-chloro-4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD) increase iron mobilization when NADH and ferrocyanide are used as reductants but have negligible effects for ascorbate [16].
  • Addition of ferrocyanide (effective redox potential +245 mV) to electron transport particles results in 30% reduction of cytochromes c + c1 [17].

Anatomical context of FERROCYANIDE

  • Iron-binding protein(s) was localized by the staining of granulocytes with acid ferrocyanide after saturation of the iron-binding protein with iron [18].
  • The same protection was not achieved with N-acetylpenicillamine or ferrocyanide, structural analogues of SNAP or SNP but devoid of NO.. Further, the effect was not attributed to the increased cGMP levels or blockade of MPP+ accumulation in astrocytes [19].
  • In 1963, after nearly 10 years of work, he presented the ferrocyanide method, allowing simultaneous estimates of SNGFR in a large number of nephrons in all layers of the kidney [20].
  • Simultaneous electrochemical determination of diffusion and partition coefficients of potassium ferrocyanide for albumin-glutaraldehyde membranes [21].
  • Ferrocyanide delineated the capillary intercellular junction as a permeable channel [22].

Associations of FERROCYANIDE with other chemical compounds

  • At intermediate pH values both the ferrocyanide reduction and the chlorite reaction produce intermediate yields of Compound II [23].
  • This finding suggests that the electron injection is to either an individual titanium surface site or a small number of Ti centers localized around the point of ferrocyanide coordination to the particle and not into a conduction band orbital delocalized over the nanoparticle [24].
  • In comparison with 10 normoalbuminuric diabetic subjects with retinopathy, 10 patients with diabetic nephropathy had similar fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, and SH groups; lower RBC GSH (0.73 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.85 +/- 0.11, P < 0.05); and higher ferrocyanide generation (18 +/- 4 vs. 14 +/- 5, P < 0.05) [25].
  • Anaerobic reactions of Rhus vernicifera laccase and its type-2 copper-depleted derivatives with hexacyanoferrate(II) [26].
  • Cholesterol oxidase and horseradish peroxidase, together with potassium ferrocyanide as a mediator, are incorporated into a graphite-70% Teflon matrix [27].

Gene context of FERROCYANIDE

  • The best hCA IV inhibitors were dicyanocuprate (K(I) of 9.8 microM) and hexacyanoferrate(II) (K(I) of 10.0 microM), whereas the worst ones were tetrafluoroborate and hexafluoroaluminate (K(I)s in the range of 124-126 mM) [28].
  • The distribution of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity has been studied by a copper ferrocyanide method in the adrenal cortex cells of a rat [29].
  • The anion-activated DBH was inhibited when assayed with ferrocyanide and activated when assayed with TMPD as electron donors by increasing the pH (5.1 to 6.0) [30].
  • The fluorescence decrease with time paralleled the decrease in activity of H2O2-oxidized CCP using both ferrocytochrome c and ferrocyanide as substrates, indicating that tryptophan and activity loss occurred on similar time scales.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[31]
  • Approach curves were recorded with ferrocyanide as a mediator at different coverages of cytochrome c and at different substrate potentials, allowing the measurement of k(BI) = 2 x 10(8) mol(-)(1) cm(3) s(-)(1) for the bimolecular ET and k degrees = 15 s(-)(1) for the tunneling ET [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of FERROCYANIDE


  1. Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing via electrochemical measurement of ferricyanide reduction by Escherichia coli and Clostridium sporogenes. Ertl, P., Robello, E., Battaglini, F., Mikkelsen, S.R. Anal. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Oxygen uptake associated with Sendai-virus-stimulated chemiluminescence in rat thymocytes contains a significant non-mitochondrial component. Kolbuch-Braddon, M.E., Peterhans, E., Stocker, R., Weidemann, M.J. Biochem. J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. The cerebral vasculature in dementia pugilistica. Adams, C.W., Bruton, C.J. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Correction of patient results for Beckman Coulter LX-20 assays affected by interference due to hemoglobin, bilirubin or lipids: a practical approach. Vermeer, H.J., Steen, G., Naus, A.J., Goevaerts, B., Agricola, P.T., Schoenmakers, C.H. Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Fe(3+)-eta(2)-peroxo species in superoxide reductase from Treponema pallidum. Comparison with Desulfoarculus baarsii. Mathé, C., Nivière, V., Houée-Levin, C., Mattioli, T.A. Biophys. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. The use of optical fiber bundles combined with electrochemistry for chemical imaging. Szunerits, S., Walt, D.R. Chemphyschem : a European journal of chemical physics and physical chemistry. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. An ascorbate-mediated transmembrane-reducing system of the human erythrocyte. Orringer, E.P., Roer, M.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  8. Localization of ryanodine receptors in smooth muscle. Lesh, R.E., Nixon, G.F., Fleischer, S., Airey, J.A., Somlyo, A.P., Somlyo, A.V. Circ. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Rapid alterations of the axon membrane in antibody-mediated demyelination. Saida, K., Saida, T., Kayama, H., Nishitani, H. Ann. Neurol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase can act as a superoxide reductase and a superoxide oxidase. Liochev, S.I., Fridovich, I. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Presence of surfactant lamellar bodies in normal and diseased sinus mucosa. Woodworth, B.A., Smythe, N., Spicer, S.S., Schulte, B.A., Schlosser, R.J. ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. CD spectra and redox reactions of superoxide dismutase from Escherichia coli B: evidence for a Mn(III) enzyme. Keele, B.B., Giovagnoli, C., Rotilio, G. Physiol. Chem. Phys. (1975) [Pubmed]
  13. Control of the transfer of oxidizing equivalents between heme iron and free radical site in yeast cytochrome c peroxidase. Ho, P.S., Hoffman, B.M., Kang, C.H., Margoliash, E. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Electron transfer across the chromaffin granule membrane. Njus, D., Knoth, J., Cook, C., Kelly, P.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. Crystal structures of HbA2 and HbE and modeling of hemoglobin delta 4: interpretation of the thermal stability and the antisickling effect of HbA2 and identification of the ferrocyanide binding site in Hb. Sen, U., Dasgupta, J., Choudhury, D., Datta, P., Chakrabarti, A., Chakrabarty, S.B., Chakrabarty, A., Dattagupta, J.K. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Iron binding, a new function for the reticulocyte endosome H(+)-ATPase. Li, C.Y., Watkins, J.A., Hamazaki, S., Altazan, J.D., Glass, J. Biochemistry (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Differential exposure of components of cytochrome b-c1 region in beef heart mitochondria and electron transport particles. Harmon, H.J., Basile, P.F. J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. Ultrastructural localization of lactoferrin and iron-binding protein in human neutrophils and rabbit heterophils. Parmley, R.T., Takagi, M., Barton, J.C., Boxer, L.A., Austin, R.L. Am. J. Pathol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  19. Nitric oxide donors protect cultured rat astrocytes from 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced toxicity. Tsai, M.J., Lee, E.H. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Odd E. Hanssen and the Hanssen method for measurement of single-nephron glomerular filtration rate. Aukland, K. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Simultaneous electrochemical determination of diffusion and partition coefficients of potassium ferrocyanide for albumin-glutaraldehyde membranes. Marrese, C.A., Miyawaki, O., Wingard, L.B. Anal. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Ultrastructure of transport pathways in stressed synovium of the knee in anaesthetized rabbits. Levick, J.R., McDonald, J.N. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Oxidation of horseradish peroxidase compound II to compound I. Hewson, W.D., Hager, L.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  24. Interfacial electron transfer in FeII(CN)6 4- -sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles: a study of direct charge injection by electroabsorption spectroscopy. Khoudiakov, M., Parise, A.R., Brunschwig, B.S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Transmembrane electron transfer in diabetic nephropathy. Matteucci, E., Giampietro, O. Diabetes Care (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Anaerobic reactions of Rhus vernicifera laccase and its type-2 copper-depleted derivatives with hexacyanoferrate(II). Sakurai, T. Biochem. J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Graphite-teflon composite bienzyme electrodes for the determination of cholesterol in reversed micelles. Application to food samples. Peña, N., Ruiz, G., Reviejo, A.J., Pingarrón, J.M. Anal. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of isozymes I, II, IV, V and IX with complex fluorides, chlorides and cyanides. Innocenti, A., Antel, J., Wurl, M., Vullo, D., Firnges, M.A., Scozzafava, A., Supuran, C.T. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Ultracytochemistry of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in adrenal gland. Saito, T., Ishibashi, T., Kanazawa, K. Okajimas folia anatomica Japonica. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Anion- and pH-dependent activation of the soluble form of dopamine beta-hydroxylase. Terland, O., Flatmark, T. Biochem. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Fluorescence investigation of yeast cytochrome c peroxidase oxidation by H2O2 and enzyme activities of the oxidized enzyme. Fox, T., Tsaprailis, G., English, A.M. Biochemistry (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Using Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (SECM) to Measure the Electron-Transfer Kinetics of Cytochrome c Immobilized on a COOH-Terminated Alkanethiol Monolayer on a Gold Electrode. Holt, K.B. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids. (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Ontogeny of single nephron filtration distribution in canine puppies. Tavani, N., Calcagno, P., Zimmet, S., Flamenbaum, W., Eisner, G., Jose, P. Pediatr. Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  34. Fine structure of the paracellular junctions of terminal villous capillaries in the perfused human placenta. Leach, L., Firth, J.A. Cell Tissue Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. Cation binding at the node of Ranvier: I. Localization of binding sites during development. Zagoren, J.C., Raine, C.S., Suzuki, K. Brain Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  36. Iron content in human alveolar macrophages. Corhay, J.L., Weber, G., Bury, T., Mariz, S., Roelandts, I., Radermecker, M.F. Eur. Respir. J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  37. Spectroelectrochemical sensing based on multimode selectivity simultaneously achievable in a single device. 11. Design and evaluation of a small portable sensor for the determination of ferrocyanide in Hanford waste samples. Stegemiller, M.L., Heineman, W.R., Seliskar, C.J., Ridgway, T.H., Bryan, S.A., Hubler, T., Sell, R.L. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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