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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Acceleration of ulcer healing by cholecystokinin (CCK): role of CCK-A receptors, somatostatin, nitric oxide and sensory nerves.

CCK exhibits a potent cytoprotective activity against acute gastric lesions, but its role in ulcer healing has been little examined. In this study we determined whether exogenous CCK or endogenously released CCK by camostate, an inhibitor of luminal proteases, or by the diversion of pancreatico-biliary secretion from the duodenum, could affect ulcer healing. In addition, the effects of antagonism of CCK-A receptors (by loxiglumide, LOX) or CCK-B receptors (by L-365,260), an inhibition of NO-synthase by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), or sensory denervation by large neurotoxic dose of capsaicin on CCK-induced ulcer healing were examined. Gastric ulcers were produced by serosal application of acetic acid and animals were sacrificed 9 days after ulcer induction. The area of ulcers and blood flow at the ulcer area were determined. Plasma levels of gastrin and CCK and luminal somatostatin were measured by RIA and mucosal biopsy samples were taken for histological evaluation and measurement of DNA synthesis. CCK given s.c. reduced dose dependently the ulcer area; the threshold dose of CCK being 1 nmol/kg and the dose inhibiting this area by 50% being 5 nmol/kg. This healing effect of CCK was accompanied by a significant increase in the GBF at ulcer margin and the rise in luminal NO production, plasma gastrin level and DNA synthesis. Concurrent treatment with LOX, completely abolished the CCK-8-induced acceleration of the ulcer healing and the rise in the GBF at the ulcer margin, whereas L-365,260 remained without any influence. Treatment with camostate or diversion of pancreatic juice that raised plasma CCK level to that observed with administration of CCK-8, also accelerated ulcer healing and this effect was also attenuated by LOX but not by L-365,260. Inhibition of NO-synthase by L-NNA significantly delayed ulcer healing and reversed the CCK-8 induced acceleration of ulcer healing, hyperemia at the ulcer margin and luminal NO release, and these effects were restored by the addition to L-NNA of L-arginine but not D-arginine. Capsaicin denervation attenuated CCK-induced ulcer healing, and the accompanying rise in the GBF at the ulcer margin and decreased plasma gastrin and luminal release of somatostatin when compared to those in rats with intact sensory nerves. Detectable signals for CCK-A and B receptor mRNAs as well as for cNOS mRNA expression were recorded by RT-PCR in the vehicle control gastric mucosa. The expression of CCK-A receptor mRNA and cNOS mRNA was significantly increased in rats treated with CCK-8 and camostate, whereas CCK-B receptor mRNA remained unaffected. We conclude that CCK accelerates ulcer healing by the mechanism involving upregulation of specific CCK-A receptors, enhancement of somatostatin release, stimulation of sensory nerves and hyperemia in the ulcer area, possibly mediated by NO.[1]


  1. Acceleration of ulcer healing by cholecystokinin (CCK): role of CCK-A receptors, somatostatin, nitric oxide and sensory nerves. Brzozowski, T., Konturek, P.C., Konturek, S.J., Pajdo, R., Drozdowicz, D., Kwiecień, S., Hahn, E.G. Regul. Pept. (1999) [Pubmed]
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