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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Lipopolysaccharide Induces Epithelium- and Prostaglandin E2-Dependent Relaxation of Mouse Isolated Trachea through Activation of Cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2.

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 agonist, causes airway hyperreactivity through nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Because NF-kappaB induces cyclooxygenase-2 ( COX-2) to increase synthesis of prostaglandins (PGs), including the potent airway anti-inflammatory and smooth muscle relaxant PGE(2), we investigated whether LPS causes short-term PGE(2)-dependent relaxation of mouse isolated trachea. In rings of trachea contracted submaximally with carbachol, LPS caused slowly developing, epithelium-dependent relaxations that reached a maximum within 60 min. Fluorescence immunohistochemistry revealed TLR4-like immunoreactivity localized predominantly to the epithelium. The LPS antagonist polymixin B; the nonselective COX inhibitor indomethacin; the selective COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazole (SC560) and 4-[5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-benzenesulfonamide (SC236), respectively; the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D; the translation inhibitor cycloheximide; the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) inhibitor 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)-1H-imadazole (SB203580); and a combination of the mixed DP/EP1/EP2 receptor antagonist 6-isopropoxy-9-xanthone-2-carboxylic acid (AH6809) and the EP4 receptor antagonist 4'-[3-butyl-5-oxo-1-(2-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-1-5-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazol-4-ylmethyl]-biphenyl-2-sulfonic acid (3-methyl-thiophene-2-carbonyl)-amide (L-161982) all abolished relaxation to LPS, giving instead slowly developing, small contractions over 60 min. The cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) inhibitor 1,1,1-trifluoro-6Z,9Z, 12Z,15Z-heneicosateraen-2-one significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited the relaxation to LPS, whereas the NF-kappaB proteasomal inhibitor Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-aldehyde (MG-132) had no affect on the relaxation in the first 20 min, after which it reversed the response to a contraction. In conclusion, our data indicate that LPS activates airway epithelial TLR4 to cause release of PGE(2) and subsequent EP2 and EP4 receptor-dependent smooth muscle relaxation. Activation of both COX-1 and COX-2 seems to be essential for this novel response to LPS, which also involves cPLA(2), p38 MAPK, NF-kappaB, and an unidentified NF-kappaB-independent, labile regulatory protein.[1]


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