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Gene Review

Ptgdr  -  prostaglandin D receptor

Mus musculus

Synonyms: DP, PGD, PGD receptor, PGD2 receptor, Prostaglandin D2 receptor, ...
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Disease relevance of Ptgdr

  • Finally, in a model of contact allergen-induced LC migration, we show that activation of the DP receptor not only inhibits LC emigration but also dramatically reduces the contact hypersensitivity responses after challenge [1].
  • Augmented anti-AChR titers were not seen in strain A mice, but after 6 months of DP treatment increased susceptibility developed to the induction of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis [2].
  • The mechanism of induction of cleft palate in DP-treated mice was explored by histological studies using light microscopy [3].
  • Newborn mice treated with DP (1 g/kg/day) showed retarded weight gain, hyperelasticity of skin, and a bizarre forelimb posture with subcutaneous edema on experimental day (ED) 7 [4].
  • Prostaglandin D2 receptor of mastocytoma P-815 cells--possible regulation by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation [5].

Psychiatry related information on Ptgdr

  • Two different doses of DP were administered orally for either 5 or 4 consecutive days during the critical period of palatal closure [3].

High impact information on Ptgdr

  • Prostanoids, including prostaglandin (PG) D(2), PGE(2), PGF(2alpha), PGI(2) and thromboxane (TX) A(2), exert their actions through specific receptors: DP, EP (EP(1), EP(2), EP(3), EP(4)), FP, IP and TP, respectively [6].
  • Activated mast cells release various chemical mediators, including prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), whose role in allergic asthma has now been investigated by the generation of mice deficient in the PGD receptor (DP) [7].
  • Moreover, DP-/- mice showed only marginal infiltration of eosinophils and failed to develop airway hyperreactivity [7].
  • However, the concentrations of TH2 cytokines and the extent of lymphocyte accumulation in the lung of OVA-challenged DP-/- mice were greatly reduced compared with those in wild-type animals [7].
  • Moreover, the potent DP receptor antagonist BW A868C restores LC migration in infected mice [1].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ptgdr


Biological context of Ptgdr

  • BW 245C (an agonist for PGD (DP) receptor) blocked the allodynia with an IC50 of 83 ng kg(-1) [8].
  • We have used a molecular genetic approach to investigate the role that DP I and II may play in the association of the desmosomal plaque with cytoplasmic intermediate filaments (IF) [9].
  • Infusion of prostaglandin (PG) D(2) into the lateral ventricle of the brain induced an increase in the amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep in wild-type (WT) mice but not in mice deficient in the PGD receptor (DP) [10].
  • Long-term DP treatment is associated with augmented anti-AChR antibody responses in C3H/He and C57BL/6 mice, and increased susceptibility to experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis in strain A mice [2].
  • Taken together, our data suggest that the activation of DP receptor by PGD(2) may represent a pathway to control airway DC migration and to limit the activation of T cells in the LNs under steady state conditions, possibly contributing to homeostasis in the lung [11].

Anatomical context of Ptgdr

  • 7. These results demonstrate that PGD2 inhibits the nociceptin-evoked allodynia through DP receptors in the spinal cord and that glycine may be involved in this inhibition [8].
  • However, even at 10 microM concentration, AL-8810 did not significantly inhibit functional responses of TP, DP, EP(2), EP(4), receptor subtypes in various cell lines [12].
  • Contraction of the fundus to PGD(2) was significantly enhanced in DP(-/-) mice, and contractions of the fundus and ileum to this PG decreased in FP(-/-) and EP(3)(-/-) mice [13].
  • These results suggest a role for the DP carboxyl terminus in the attachment of IF to the desmosome in either a direct or indirect manner [9].
  • Immunogold localization of COS-7 cells transfected with constructs including the carboxyl terminus of DP demonstrated an accumulation of mutant protein in perinuclear aggregates within which IF subunits were sequestered [9].

Associations of Ptgdr with chemical compounds

  • This binding was displaced by unlabeled ligands in the following order: PGD2 > BW 245C (a PGD agonist) > BW A868C (a PGD antagonist) > STA2 (a thromboxane A2 agonist) [14].
  • 3. The blockade of nociceptin-induced allodynia by PGD2 was reversed by the potent and selective DP-receptor antagonist BW A868C in a dose-dependent manner with an ED50 of 42.8 ng kg(-1) [8].
  • In DP(-/-) mice, sulprostone showed increased contraction [13].
  • Control cultures prelabelled with either AA or EPA produced similar amounts of the respective PGF, PGE, and PGD [15].
  • However, phloretin antagonized functional responses of EP2 and DP prostanoid receptors, and also the V1-vasopressin receptor [16].

Other interactions of Ptgdr


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ptgdr

  • Immunofluorescence staining of WT mouse brain revealed that DP immunoreactivity was dominantly localized in the leptomeninges (LM) of the basal forebrain but that PGD synthase immunoreactivity was widely distributed in the LM of the entire brain [10].
  • Finally, in situ hybridization was performed to localize PGD synthase mRNA [18].
  • PGD synthase activity was determined, and the protein was quantified by Western blot analysis and localized immunohistochemically [18].
  • Intradermal injection of Sm28GST in wild-type (WT), but not in D prostanoid receptor (DP) 1-deficient mice abrogates the departure of LC from the epidermis after TNF-alpha or FITC treatment [19].
  • IgG responses were significantly greater in the DP treated mice than in the control group while IgM responses were not significantly different [20].


  1. Role of the parasite-derived prostaglandin D2 in the inhibition of epidermal Langerhans cell migration during schistosomiasis infection. Angeli, V., Faveeuw, C., Roye, O., Fontaine, J., Teissier, E., Capron, A., Wolowczuk, I., Capron, M., Trottein, F. J. Exp. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Augmented anti-acetylcholine receptor response following long-term penicillamine administration. Bever, C.T., Dretchen, K.L., Blake, G.J., Chang, H.W., Penn, A.S., Asofsky, R. Ann. Neurol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. D-penicillamine-induced cleft palate in mice. Myint, B. Teratology (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. D-penicillamine-induced copper deficiency in suckling mice: neurological abnormalities and brain mitochondrial enzyme activities. Yamamoto, M., Akiyama, C., Aikawa, H. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Prostaglandin D2 receptor of mastocytoma P-815 cells--possible regulation by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Yoshimura, S., Mizuno, Y., Kimura, K., Yatsunami, K., Fujisawa, J., Tomita, K., Ichikawa, A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Thromboxane A2 and prostaglandin F2alpha mediate inflammatory tachycardia. Takayama, K., Yuhki, K., Ono, K., Fujino, T., Hara, A., Yamada, T., Kuriyama, S., Karibe, H., Okada, Y., Takahata, O., Taniguchi, T., Iijima, T., Iwasaki, H., Narumiya, S., Ushikubi, F. Nat. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Prostaglandin D2 as a mediator of allergic asthma. Matsuoka, T., Hirata, M., Tanaka, H., Takahashi, Y., Murata, T., Kabashima, K., Sugimoto, Y., Kobayashi, T., Ushikubi, F., Aze, Y., Eguchi, N., Urade, Y., Yoshida, N., Kimura, K., Mizoguchi, A., Honda, Y., Nagai, H., Narumiya, S. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Inhibition of nociceptin-induced allodynia in conscious mice by prostaglandin D2. Minami, T., Okuda-Ashitaka, E., Nishizawa, M., Mori, H., Ito, S. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. The desmoplakin carboxyl terminus coaligns with and specifically disrupts intermediate filament networks when expressed in cultured cells. Stappenbeck, T.S., Green, K.J. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Dominant localization of prostaglandin D receptors on arachnoid trabecular cells in mouse basal forebrain and their involvement in the regulation of non-rapid eye movement sleep. Mizoguchi, A., Eguchi, N., Kimura, K., Kiyohara, Y., Qu, W.M., Huang, Z.L., Mochizuki, T., Lazarus, M., Kobayashi, T., Kaneko, T., Narumiya, S., Urade, Y., Hayaishi, O. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Prostaglandin D2 inhibits airway dendritic cell migration and function in steady state conditions by selective activation of the D prostanoid receptor 1. Hammad, H., de Heer, H.J., Soullie, T., Hoogsteden, H.C., Trottein, F., Lambrecht, B.N. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. AL-8810: a novel prostaglandin F2 alpha analog with selective antagonist effects at the prostaglandin F2 alpha (FP) receptor. Griffin, B.W., Klimko, P., Crider, J.Y., Sharif, N.A. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Characterization of prostanoid receptors mediating contraction of the gastric fundus and ileum: studies using mice deficient in prostanoid receptors. Okada, Y., Hara, A., Ma, H., Xiao, C.Y., Takahata, O., Kohgo, Y., Narumiya, S., Ushikubi, F. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Molecular characterization of a mouse prostaglandin D receptor and functional expression of the cloned gene. Hirata, M., Kakizuka, A., Aizawa, M., Ushikubi, F., Narumiya, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acid: comparison of metabolism and activity in murine epidermal cells. Belury, M.A., Patrick, K.E., Locniskar, M., Fischer, S.M. Lipids (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. AL-3138 antagonizes FP prostanoid receptor-mediated inositol phosphates generation: comparison with some purported FP antagonists. Sharif, N.A., Crider, J.Y., Davis, T.L. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. RAW264.7 cells lack prostaglandin-dependent autoregulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion. Rouzer, C.A., Jacobs, A.T., Nirodi, C.S., Kingsley, P.J., Morrow, J.D., Marnett, L.J. J. Lipid Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Localization of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (beta-trace) in iris, ciliary body, and eye fluids. Gerashchenko, D.Y., Beuckmann, C.T., Marcheselli, V.L., Gordon, W.C., Kanaoka, Y., Eguchi, N., Urade, Y., Hayaishi, O., Bazan, N.G. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Pivotal roles of the parasite PGD2 synthase and of the host D prostanoid receptor 1 in schistosome immune evasion. Hervé, M., Angeli, V., Pinzar, E., Wintjens, R., Faveeuw, C., Narumiya, S., Capron, A., Urade, Y., Capron, M., Riveau, G., Trottein, F. Eur. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Augmented IgG anti-acetylcholine receptor response following chronic penicillamine administration. Bever, C.T., Asofsky, R. J. Neuroimmunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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