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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

ATP-dependent calcium transport in isolated membrane vesicles from Azotobacter vinelandii.

Membrane vesicles from Azotobacter vinelandii O prepared by osmotic lysis of spheroplasts in tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane/acetate buffer (pH 7.8) contain a latent adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). The ATPase can be activated when the vesicles are incubated in the presence of an electron donor (D-lactate) and a mixture of adenosine diphosphate and inorganic phosphate or by controlled treatment with trypsin. After the ATPase is activated, the membrane vesicles in the presence of adenosine triphosphate accumulate calcium but not glucose or rubidium (in the presence of valinomycin). ATP-dependent calcium uptake follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a Km of 48 muM and a Vmax of 20 nmol/min/mg of membrane protein and is highly specific for calcium over cations magnesium, barium, lanthanum, sodium, potassium, and lithium. The calcium accumulated in the presence of ATP is freely exchangeable with external calcium and is rapidly released in the presenceof uncouplers or ATPase inhibitors. Calcium uptake in the presenceof ATP is blocked by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, ADP, p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonate, by the proton-conducting ionophores m-chlorophenylcarbonylcyanide hydrazone, nigericin, monensin, and gramicidin D, but not by potassium cyanide, anoxia, or valinomycin (in the presence of potassium). Measurements of the external pH of vesicle suspensions reveal that protons are actively taken up by the membranes during hydrolysis of ATP. These results suggest that vesicles prepared under these conditions have a topology which is inverted with respect to the intact cell and that calcium is accumulated by means of proton antiport.[1]


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